Topic 1: Concept Of Geography - Geography Form 1

Topic 1: Concept Of Geography – Geography Form 1

Geography Notes Form One, Topic 6: Map Work - Geography Form 1 Topic 5: Climate - Geography Form 1, Topic 4: Weather - Geography Form 1, Topic 3: Major Features Of The Earths Surface - Geography Form 1, Topic 2: The Solar System - Geography Form 1, Topic 1: Concept Of Geography - Geography Form 1

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Geo – means earth

Graphea/Grapher – means to write, to draw and to describe about the earth

Geography  is the study of distribution and interrelationship of phenomena in relation to the earth’s surface.
Geography is a science that deals with the earth and its life,the description of land sea ,air,plants and animal life including human being and their activities.
It is the science of distributions and is concerned with spatial variations in any physical or cultural.


There are three main branches of geography namely: –

(a)  Physical geography

(b)  Human and economic geography

(c) Practical geography


Is concerned with Land  formation processes, weather and climate . Also it is the branch of geography that studies all physical features
e.g .Mountain,rift valley

The areas covered include:

a) Geology-study of the origin, structure and composition of the earth. It includes study of rocks.

b) Geomorphology- the study of internal and external land forming processes and landforms.

c) Climatology- the study of climate and weather

d) Pedology- the study of soils

e) Biogeography – the study of soils, vegetation and animals.

f) Hydrology- the study of water bodies

g) Spatial geography -study of space


It deals with all activities of human on the earth’s surface,which includes mining,agriculture,transportation,settlement,tourism etc,

The areas covered include:

a) Mining

b) Forestry

c) Agriculture

d) Fishing

e) Wildlife and tourism

f) Industry

g) Energy etc.


Is concerned with field study of photograph interpretation, map work , statistics and research.

A smaller branch which equips the learner with practical skills that enhance their understanding and interpretation of human and physical geographical information.

The areas are:

a) Statistical methods

b) Map work

c) Field work

d) Photograph work

Topic 1: Concept Of Geography - Geography Form 1

Exercise 1

1. Why are we studying geography?

(i) To gain skills of observing,measuring,recording and interpreting phenomena

(ii) To understand interaction between our country and other countries and share ideas of solving problems.

(iii)  To acquire skills for combating environment problems in order to conserve and manage the environment in a sustainable way.

(iv)   To develop awareness and knowledge about natural resources(Land forests, mineral deposits,water etc) wild animals climatic regions and other natural resources..

(v)    It provide base for specialization career for example cartographer, climatology, geologist etc

(vi )   It helps to learn on how other countries in the world solve different problems like fire outbreak disease, environment problems e.t.c

(vii)   It help us to understand aspect of weather and climate and how it influence the environment

(viii)  To gain the knowledge of employment opportunities

Exercise 2

1. What is geography?

Geography is the study of human and environment in relation to the earth

2. How many branches of geography do we have?

There are three branches of geography namely;

(i)   Physical geography

(ii)   Human and economic geography

(iii) Practical geography

Physical geography concerned with Land formation process, weather and climate.

Human and economic geography deals with all activities of human on the earth’s surface.

Practical geography is concerned with field study, photograph interpretation ,map work and research

3. Why are we studying geography?

(give three strong reasons and examples)

(i)   To develop awareness of our country and  heritage.

(ii)   To expand our knowledge of employment opportunities.

(iii)  To gain skills of observing, measuring, recording and interpreting phenomena.

Importance of Studying Geography

1. Facilitates good relationship among nations by studying geography of other regions of the world.

2. it’s a career subject in that it enables one to go for advanced studies in specialised fields e.g. geography teachers, meteorology, surveying etc.

3. Enables us to appreciate other people’s way of life by learning economic activities of different communities within our country and other parts of the world.

4. Enables us to conserve our environment when we learn negative and positive effects of human activities on the environment.

5. Enables us to conserve our resources when we learn wise use of resources in conservation and management of resources e.g. wildlife, forests, energy, etc.

6. Inculcates in us virtues of cooperation and patience as we work in groups.

7. Makes us to appreciate manual work as we are involved in practical geography which may lead to self employment.

8. Promotion of industry such as tourism by guiding tourists to places of interest by using maps, calculations of distances etc.

Relationship between Geography and Other Subjects

1. Mathematics

Mathematical techniques are used in drawing graphs and pie charts and mathematical formulae are used in geography to calculate distances, areas, population density, population densities, etc.

2. History

History uses geographical tools like maps, charts and graphs to show where past events took place e.g. the movement of people in the past.

3. Biology

Geography explains the distribution of organisms and factors influencing their distribution on the earth’s surface.

4. Physics

Geography uses physics principles and formulae to calculate and describe aspects such as magnetic field, gravity, vibrations of the earth etc.

5. Chemistry

Geography applies chemistry in studying chemical composition and chemical changes which take place in soils and rocks.

6. Agriculture

Geography studies farming systems, their distribution and factors affecting farming activities.