THE NEW DEAL POLICY BY USA
Refers to the effort/programs taken by President Franklin Defame Roosevelt to rescue/pull the U.S.A out of G.E.D of 1929 – 1933 which began in U.S.A after the collapse of New York stock exchange.
Roosevelt who become the president of U.S.A after U.S.A being affected by the G.E.D he made a lot of efforts to rescue the economy of U.S.A out of the G.E.D,
he become the President of U.S.A 4.03, 1932 where he promised as “I pledge myself to the New Deal to American people” this was the first opening speech, Roosevelt was expressing the Americans to be confident with him on solving the problems of G.E.D by being supported by Americans hence he said ‘ The only thing we have to fear it fears itself”.
Was an attempt to recognize the capitalist system through registration and other measures taken by democratic party led by president Franklin D. Roosevelt. This combined a series of measures, solution and activities which all intended to rescue the economy of U.S.A from the impact of U.S.A.
AIMS /OBJECTIVES OF NEW DEAL
1. To prevent economic hardship that had been brought by G.E.D to American people.
2. To create employment opportunities to Americans through creating different projects which could give employment to Americans e.g. it was said that 12 out of 15 had no jobs.
3. To increase and estimated demand of goods but also aimed to control period in order to avoid inflation.
4. To reduce and stop poverty which had spread throughout U.S.A because of the effect of G.E.D to Americans.
5. To provide relief to the victims of the economic hardship of the G.E.D e.g. providing shelter for homeless people, food for starving people.
6. Aimed to bring back confidence of American people like farmers, industrialist, and bankers etc who had lost their home because of the effects of G.E.D.
7. To end financial crisis due to the collapse of banks and due to bankrupt of the bank.
8. Aimed to stimulate economic activities e.g. Agriculture production, business activities, industrial period etc.
MEASURES TAKEN BY ROOSEVELT IN THE NEW DEAL / PROGRAMME
1. Federal emergence relief administration (FED).
This measure began to create jobs through construction of air parts, roads, school, play ground as a result it gave work to jobless, actors and agrarians.
2. Agricultural adjustment act of 12/05/1933.
This measure aimed at raising the prices of agricultural production by limiting over production; this was accompanied by funds by the tax collector and by the government to compensate the farmers in case of price fluctuation faced the farmers the farmers during the depression.
3. The national industrial recovery act (NIRA).
This was passed in 1935 in order to deal with the effects of depression in the new deal. NIRA aimed to enforce law of fair practice for business men and industrialist where it set minimum wage and maximum wage which workers were suppose to be paid but also NIRA sets primary goals to business companies in order to improve the level of quality of goods but also within NIRA workers rights were organized and bargain were recognized.
4. The public worker administration (PWA).
This measure aimed at initiating of public workers projects e.g. many public workers were buildings which were provided with money from the government in order to run its activities and this public workers project were supposed to pay low interest to the government e.g. There was the building of Tennessee valley authority (T.V.A) in order to control floods and provide electricity in rural areas so as to calm poverty.
5. The finance restricting /banking relief act.
This measure intended to provide loan for bankers to procedure with banking activities.
6. The labour standard act passed in 1938.
This was intended to provide employment to the people but also setting the minimum wage of US dollar cent 25 per hour and maximum working hours is 44 hours per week;
But also there should be extra pay for a time exceeding evolving hours but also in this measure children below 16 years were abandon to work in industries rather they were insisted to go to school.
7. Social security fund of 1937.
This measure intended to provide insurance for aged, jobless, blindness, disabled as well as children in need.
8. The civilian conservative cooperation.
In this act a lot of program were initiated / launched by the government where by people in America were to be given works in projects like planting trees, building dams etc.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NEW DEAL
The New deal achieved a lot in reviving the U.S.A economy and make her economy stable as collaborated below:-
1. It curbed / achieved in curbing the spread of depression further in U.S.A. This led to revive the economic situation in America hence it accelerated U.S.A to start being stable economically.
2. Created new employment opportunities to Americans who had no employment due to great depression e.g. In 1937 more than US dollar 40 billion had been spend in projects which led to provide employment to American people.
3. Created major political changes in America whereby the democratic party become the majority party by replacing the republication party which was in power hence president Franklin D. Roosevelt come into power with his democratic party.
4. It succeeded in reorganizing agricultural and industrial sectors which had almost collapsed during G.E.D. This was because after the measure taken in the new deal agriculture and industries started to produce more & more and employ many America for stabilizing the American economy.
5. It succeeded in organizing labor in U.S.A whereby labor become an important force in national affairs e.g. There was the formation of labor union to fight for the rights of workers but also labor was needed in almost all sectors revived after the Great depression for economic stability in America.
6. It succeeded in reducing poverty to Americans by providing them with relief such as food, shelter, electricity, and provision of goods, education & health care.
7. It succeeded in reviving different economic sectors in U.S.A e.g. public welfare, banking sector, industrial sector, tourist sector and agricultural sector grow up very rapidly and start to operate it again which all these brought back confidence among the people in America such as bank depositors, farmers, industrialist etc.
CHANGES IN U.S.A AFFAIRS SINCE 1945/EFFECTS OF U.S.A AFTER BECOMING SUPER POWER
Soon after WWII U.S.A got prosperity / wealth which turned U.S.A as a strongest nation in all aspect of life in the world defending the capitalist nations.
1. US Economy grow more stable
Because U.S.A benefited a lot in the WWI and WWII e.g. No war was ever fought in American land, U.S.A joined in WWI and WWII very late and all the time U.S.A was a supplier of war equipment for fighting nation in Europe.
This enabled U.S.A to get wealth and started to consolidate Monopoly capital which led the rise of larger Monopoly companies which were invested in U.S.A and other parts of the world.
2. U.S.A consolidated her industries;
These enabled U.S.A to get more wealth / for development in America e.g. there were armament industries which produced air jobs, naval ships, military weapons, car manufacturing industries etc, all these enabled U.S.A to consolidate her own economy.
3. The rise of income among the working class.
This was due to increase of wages which resulted after the trade union struggles on the rights of workers but also the increase of income led to the rise of national market which also accelerated to ability of American people to consume the commodities production in the country hence U.S.A become stable economically.
4. There was improvement of infrastructure network.
This led U.S.A to start accessing both internal and external market, getting more labor of due to availability of labor mobility in USA but also the improvement of infrastructures accelerated the communication of people in USA.
5. U.S.A was able to extend the Marshall plan.
The Marshall plan led U.S.A to get more wealth from the debt paid from European nation but also with the Marshall plan U.S.A was able to persuade the Europeans to decolonize her colonies so as U.S.A could get areas for market, cheap labour, raw materials for USA and areas to invest.
6. U.S.A established military organization and military bases.
In other parts of the world in order to defend her capitalism or her imperialism with all interest of U.S.A e.g. There was formation of NATO, CENTO, ANZUS, OAS, SEATO, and military bases e.g. Mombasa Somalia in Africa, Pakistan and Kuwait
7. U.S.A started to defend and protect the spread of communism.
In Western Europe and other parts of the world that followed capitalism, hence U.S.A appointed as the policeman of the world to fight against communism from affecting capitalist world.
8. U.S.A abandoned her isolation policy
Started to opt the involvement in Western European matter both politically, socially, military and much more economically because Western European countries were under capitalist system being supported by U.S.A.
9. The emergence of cold war politics.
Between the socialist nation under USSR and the capitalist nation under U.S.A until early 1990’s after the collapse of USSR as a leading socialist nation.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JAPAN AND U.S.A AFTER WWII
Before the attack of the pearl Harbor there was the conflict between Japan and U.S.A due to U.S.A support to China which was a traditional enemy of Japan, for this reason Japan declared war against U.S.A which increased tension /enmity due to different ideologies among the imperialist powers however Japan Military troops were supported by Muslim, Hitler and General Francisca Franco of Spain to challenge the ideas of democracy and security of some American closed friends
Hence U.S.A interred in the WWII following the surprising attack of Japan on a large American Naval base at pear / harbor in Hawaii because Japan was interesting to get rubber, oil and other raw materials from the East Asia especially from Manchuria.
This forced U.S.A directly to inter into the WWII against Japan hence it was due to the strong competition between Japanese and U.S.A over the reasons over Asia like rubber, oil metal, markets and the attack of Japan at Pearl Harbor which forced America to inter in the WWII against Japan.
After the WWII and the surrender of Japan, U.S.A and Japan entered on a good relationship which was resulted after the post dam conference of 1945 hence U.S.A occupied Japan and took over three main Island of Japan which were Hokkaido, Shikoku and Kyushu. This allowed U.S.A to create a democratic government in Japan under the U.S.A military commander Mac. Arthur.
HOW THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN U.S.A AND JAPAN IMPLEMENTED
The relationship of Japan and U.S.A was implemented in all aspects of life economically, socially, military and politically as elaborated below:-
(i) Japan was forced to adopt new constitution.
This made the King who was the head of state and who had all the powers to be like a figure head or ceremonial leader of the new government / state.
(ii) Introduction of universal suffrage and observation of human rights.
(iii) Japan was not allowed to raise an army and Shinto culture which is a Japanese traditional region established by King based on military expansionism was abolished.
(iv) The education system of Japan was made similar to that of America.
(v) There was a large economic form which was under taken by American government to help Japan. This aimed to make Japan to be strong economically.
(vi) U.S.A offered aid to Japan in order to facilitate the construction of Japanese economy and consolidate Japanese capitalist which accelerated the rapid economy development in Japan.
(vii) U.S.A used the advantage of ruling Japan to check the spread of communism in fear east; in so doing U.S.A strengthen Japanese economy as well as a way of using Japan as a base for advancement of U.S.A imperialism in few East like in Taiwan, South Korea, and Vietnam.
THE EFFECT OF U.S.A – JAPANESE RELATION
1. U.S.A made Japan as one of the leading industrial nation in the world. Through industries and technologies she extended in Japan is a world leading ship building, in the world steel production and is the world leading of produce of electronic goods like cameras, watches, mobile phones etc.
2. Japan was made as a base for U.S.A imperialism. This was intending to check the spread of communism in Asia e.g. U.S.A involved Naval base in Japan in 1950’s such as Korean war, this made U.S.A to invest much and put a lot of efforts in Japan in order to check the spread of communism in Eastern Europe but also to defend Japan from communist threat .
3. After the end of the U.S.A rule in Japan in 1970’s; the two nations have remained the big enemies in the modern capitalist technological manufacturing in the world market e.g. Japanese car against U.S.A car.
4. Japan received U.S.A aid to revive her affected economy.
5. There had many adoption of English vocabularies in Japanese language as well as the western business goods started to use the language of Japan as well as the Japanese goods started to use English vocabulary in order to be sold easier at home and at world market.
6. Nowadays Japan has remained as the close friend of U.S.A sharing the American culture and goods for the development of the two nations.
7. Japan was put under the U.S.A domination / rule until the end of U.S.A rule in Japan in 1970’s.