Is a situation in which a country is independent politically but still dominated by another country (usually strong and imperia list) economically, culturally, socially and even military with aimed at restoration (restoring) and preservation of the imperialist positions in the LDCs. This started after colonies achieve their independence in 20 th century up to 21 st century.


Neo-colonialism is a direct control of an independent nation by another country which is more powerful economically, socially and military, hence Neo-colonialism is the method that the former colonial masters planned in order to continue exploiting their former colonies after they got their political independence.

Neo-colonialism is a continuation of colonialism in a country which is politically independent under new conditions like to agree conditions of SAP’S such as devaluation of currencies, reduction of workers, cost sharing in social services etc. with all these conditions aims at controlling the former colonies indirectly


Is the situation whereby a country is politically independent but economically dependent, hence under Neo-colonialism there were no indigenous people have succeeded to liberate themselves from colonial rule but they are still milled economically by imperialist power hence a country with Neo-colonization is a country of flag independence


Neo-colonialism means one country politically independent but still dominated by other countries usually strong economically.


According to Walter Rodney on his book of “How Europe underdeveloped Africa; he argued that under development is not absence of development rather is the process of comparing between one society with another, one country with another and continent by continent.

Hence under development is a relative term which denotes a situation of economic, social or even political backwardness when it cover on the situation of comparison to that in advanced countries; African is underdeveloped when you compare Africa with America or Europe.


1. A country with neo-colonialism is characterized with economic dependence because; a country with neo-colonialism cannot decide on its own as fallacies as economic is concern, rather they have to depend from capitalist nation for development in those nations.

2. A country is also characterized by under development because it is exploited by the imperialists through indirectly by using loans and grants which a country is given from IFM, WB and other international cooperation’s hence after the loans and grants; the rich harvest the super profit from LDCs which are taken to develop their countries in Europe and Northern America.

3. A country by puppet regime which works daily to supervise the operations of Neo-colonialism in their nations for interest of the capitalist in Europe and U.S.A.

4. A country with no national culture; this is because a nation under neo-colonialism is forced to follow and implement culture like way of dressing, eating for the benefit of imperialist who impose their culture in that nations.

5. A country has no political will of its own; this is because everything politically is directed from outside countries and the remaining masers have no say (decision) over their political will.


i. Underdeveloped characterized by economic dependence; this is because the LDCs are poor economically and always rely on the developed countries for economic assistance and Aids e.g. Assistance and AID from IMF, WB, European Union, Paris –club etc. Hence the LDCs tend to depend on the rich countries economically e.g. They depend on clothes, machines, cars, goods and technology from developed countries.

ii. Underdeveloped week technological and industrial base hence the LDCs import technology from developed countries in their attempt to the industries e.g. the LDCs do import technology like redder, laboratory equipment, agricultural equipment and industrial technologies.

iii. Underdevelopment is lack of strong internal linkages of the economy due to weak link between sectors such as agriculture and industry, because of this the LDCs have remained as a producers of agricultural raw materials and the buyers of manufacturing goods from abroad e.g. The LDC s produce cocoa, groundnuts, rubber, wheat, tea, cotton etc. with all these agricultural products are taken to be manufactured as goods in developed countries and later on these goods are imported and later on these goods are imported to the LDCs where they are sold highly.

iv. The LDCs there is political instability because many of the third world countries are victims of civil wars and interstate wars due to availability of guns and interface of internal matters by the super powers with regard to the level of development in the LDCs, destruct peace and security and led to the influx of refugees to neighboring countries e.g. Refugees of Rwanda, Burundi and DRC in Tanzania, Refugees of Ethiopia and Somalia in Kenya, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya in Mali etc.

v. Underdevelopment is characterized by price fluctuation of raw materials from the LDCs in the world market due to in-ability of the LDC’s to fix prices for both their export and import, hence all the prices of raw materials and manufactured goods are fixed by the imperialist at the world market e.g. In 2000’s the prices of cotton was US – $5 PER Kg while in 2011 the prices of cotton was 3 US dollar per kg and the price keeps on changing each year with affect the LDC s who cannot fix the prices in the world market.

vi. The LDC s are characterized by low per capital income; this is because people in these countries do earn low earnings and majority of them are unemployed and their selling of agricultural raw materials always harvest low profit hence low per capital income for people living in LDCs.

vii. LDCs have low growth national product (G.N.P.).
This is because countries found in the LDC s always are exploited by the developed countries e.g. their agricultural raw materials in the world market face the problem of price fluctuation, minerals are exploited for the benefit of the rich countries all these led to low gross national product.

viii. LDCs have mono-cultural economies in which their economies are based on one cash crop or mineral production due to absence of economic diversification hence with price fluctuation in the world market. These countries suffer much economically.

ix. The 3rd countries have low value of their currencies compare to that 7 currencies of the developed countries e.g. the sh. of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania have low value compare with dollars of US, Dutch mark of Germany, pounds of Britain etc. Likewise there is devaluation of currencies in the 3rd world countries it the common feature.

x. There is rate of illiteracy, infant mortality rate and low life expectancy compared to that of Europe or U.S.A, in sufficient calorific intake, high rate of diseases like epidemic diseases i.e. HIV, Ebola and TB.

xi. Oil crisis is also problem in the LDCs.

xii. .There problems of hunger, famine, floods and drought.


Neo-colonialism operates in different areas/angles in the former colonies like controlling the economies of LDC s, imposing their culture in the 3rd world countries, planting their puppet leaders to control the government in the LDCs, puppet leaders to control the government in the LDCs, training military officers etc. as what the major mechanism as elaborated below.


The former colonial masters impose/provide harsh conditionality for their aid they provide to the LDC s for develop, these conditions are like;

i. Privatization of economy. Whereby the poor nation are formed to privatize their economy which used to be shared by all indigenous class hence Neo-colonial states cannot manage to exercise unless to privatize their economy.

ii. Welcoming foreign investors to invest in neo-colonies on condition that they repatriate with their profit in foreign exchange.

iii. Giving loans and grants on conditions that the recipient world abandon mono partism and follow/peruse multiparty, devaluate their currencies, adopt cost sharing etc. but also the LDCs have to pay loans with high interest.

iv. Forcing the LDCs to abandon the price commission and later the prices full and revise price fluctuation, according to the law of supply and demand which is purely a capitalist would market in with the capitalist control the world market and fix prices of raw materials from LDCs – hence the government of LDCs should allow trade liberalization to operate in their countries. 5.Supporting joint ventures organization like NGO’s working jointly with local people in different areas.


i. The rich countries send military aid like military hardware such as weapons to keep peace and security and bringing unit in the LDCs; but also the rich countries tend to train soldiers of the LDC s in order to have military skills, knowledge and experience in protecting and defending their countries against their enemies.

ii. Sometimes the rich counties tend to come with the troops pretending that they are after peace keeping and defending countries against libels e.g. in the Franco phone countries where the French always used this trek to take the resources of the former colonies e.g. Sierra –Leone, Liberia, Madagascar, Chad, Mali etc. likewise currently the rich countries tend to establish military bases on the soil of the developing countries to defend their harvested interest there e.g. in Mombasa –Kenya, Somalia, Pakistani, Saud Arabia etc.

iii. Politically. The government in neo-colonies are controlled by the rich nations by supporting and financing puppet leaders to take power and control the government in the LDCs hence puppet leaders are forced to implement the interest of the imperialist such as exploiting the resources of their country for the benefit and interest of imperialist e.g. the late Seseseko Mobutu in Zaire (D.R.C.) and late Laurent Kabila in (D.R.C.) Charles Taylor in Liberia, The Late Fodey Senko in Sierra – Leone. Likewise Neo-colonialism operate through organizations led by their former colonial masters e.g. for the common wealth (for ex-British colonies) and Franco Phone (for ex-French Colonies).

3. Socially. Neo-Colonialism operate through different ways such as introducing western culture in which people of the LDC s are forced to follow western culture like dressing style, eating style etc. but also people of LDC s have forced to follow education system of the west by abandoning different and important things in education system practiced in the LDC s by adopting the western education system.

4. Culturally. Neo-colonialism operate through introduction of western dancer, films and cinema, phonographs and many others evil with affect people in 3 rd world countries culturally with all those affect e.g. people of LDC s are now abandon their traditional dances (drams) songs, music due to operation of Neo-colonialism.


i. It led to political instability in many countries of LDC s due to civil wars and interstate wars, e.g. Angola, Burundi, DRC and Somalia etc.

ii. It led to perpetuation of economic exploitation of the LDCs by big powers that usually tend to exploit resources for their benefit by using the back door, hence LDC s tend to stagnate economically.

iii. It led to economic dependence and problem due to export and import economy, harsh economic conditions, part by developed countries to the LDC s and control of the world market in which the prices of agricultural raw materials from LDCs keeps on changing due to price fluctuation.

iii. Led to total underdeveloped due to economic, political and cultural evils imposed in the LDC s by the rich nations like; devaluation of currencies, cost sharing in social services, paying high interest rate from the loans offered in the LDC s and exploitation of the resources of the LDC s done by Neo –colonialism dairy in the LDCs.

iv. It Led to low level of science and technology due to importation of ready manufacture goods in the LDC s hence people of the LDC s tend to consume goods which have already made; this stagnate the knowledge, skills and experience of the people in the LDC s to develop their science and technology.

v. It perpetuate cultural imperialism/impose western culture in LDCs; where by people of the LDCs tend to adopt, follow, respect and obey the cultural of Europeans such as dressing style, marriage, eating style and neglecting their own culture.

vi. It led to acute poverty in the LDC s due to control of the world market and fixing the prices of agricultural raw materials from the LDCs, much exploitation of resources of the LDCs, heavy conditions imposed by colonialist in the LDCs e.g. accepting loans with high interest all these lead to acute poverty among the people in the LDCs.

vii. It leads to continuation of the domination of the world market by imperialist powers. This is because the imperialist powers tend to dominate and control the world market for their own interest e.g. Rich nations tend to fix prices of the agricultural raw materials from LDC for their advantage while the products/manufactured goods from the rich nations are fixed in prizes in such a way that the LDC must be in disadvantage for them to benefit.

viii. It Leads to heavy indebtedness i.e. (leads to too much debts) in the LDC s due to continuous borrowing from imperialist nations usually from rich and developed counties hence the LDC face the debt crisis daily and which have caused these developing countries to run bankrupt and fail to run their daily activities more smoothly.

ix. It Leads to un balanced and unimplemented budget in the LDC s due to over reliance i.e. too much depending from foreign aids, grants and loans; this has caused a lot of projects and dip plans such as constructing welling, and dawn/provision of good social services, construction of infrastructure methods, improvement of agricultural prod not implemented by the government of LDCs.

x. It leads to death due to cooperation’s of Neo-colonialism in the LDC s like importing expired drugs, civil wars, etc. where the developed countries sell weapons to the fighting nation of same nation.

xi. It has caused LDCs not to have say on their own internal matters because of the continuous controlling of the internal affairs by the foreign powers through neo-colonialism and its organizations e.g. Nigeria was suspended from its common wealth membership after it killed the Ogoni environmental activities and the written Keny Saro Wiwa in 1996, Zimbabwe after Mugabe annexed the Land from European settlers and announcement of the national election.


The following are the suggested methods and solution to prevent the problems of neo-colonialism and under development in LDCs.

1.Practicing the policy of self reliance by mobilizing our own natural and human resource, technology and industry so as we can avoid depending on abroad.

2.Establishing and strengthening economic integrations among countries in the LDCs with the aim of having opportunities for industrialization, creating the wider market and having the big sell in the big trade and monetary system.

3.Through the UN meetings and regular summits the LDCs must seriously attack and condemn Neo – colonialism with its operation in LDC s.

4.Establishing integrated self sustaining national economies for the aim of this LDC s must be self sustained economically and reduce to much depending on the developed countries e.g. the bilateral agreement as Uganda and Libya stated.

5.Establishing local industries and developing those which have attend established and appropriate local technology in order to avoid total reliance of developed industrial goods and technology.

6.To establish our own multinational cooperation’s so that these multinational cooperation’s would be the solutions for the problems facing the LDC s economically like inter regional and international trade, market problems, provisional of aid, financial problem and grant problem.

7. Establishing strong internal linkages in economies among different economic sectors in the LDCs in order for what may be produced in one sector must be manufactured in another sector for the drop of LDC s e.g. between agriculture and industrial sector.

8. By getting control of our own economy through putting emphasis on the use of our own natural and human resources adopting appropriate technology in order to build up self internal economy in steady of depending from outside.

9.All LDCs should reject a western standard of consumption and living for both individual and all society because; the western standard of living and consumption are basing on exploitation of LDC s and their own poor people therefore any attempt of the LDC s to introduce western consumption and standard of living will led to creation of small classes of a very few people (the rich) to exploited the large class (poor).

10.By farming alliance of the poor nations in dealing with the developed nations. This will be the only solution to overcome the problem of dependence which face the LDC s e.g. the alliance of the poor nations will be in term of international trade, market, organizing labor etc.

11.By forming consolidating the regional and inter regional economic groups like COMESA, SADDEC, EAC, ECOWAS, the Arab league etc. in which these regional groupings should help to widen market, providing social and political development among the poor nations themselves without depending from the rich nations who use neo-colonialism to exploit the LDCs.

12.There should be development plans which will help the LDC s to develop without depending from the rich nations e.g. income policy, control major investment, import –export development project, privatization policy etc. 13.The LDC s should reject loans, grants and Aids from the developed countries which had been the source of underdevelopment in the LDC s.


1. Through UN the LDC s have verbally attacked and condemned Neo-colonialism e.g. through the new-international economic order (N.I.E.O) of 1970’s.

2.Formation of the formal O.A.U. in 1963 the current African Union, All these are the steps towards fighting neo-colonialism and under development because African nations have joined together by using the organization to condemn the operations of neo-colonialism in LDC s.

3. Formation of NAM 1961 in Yugoslavia which aimed to make a neutral cooperation between the capitalist camp and the socialist camp in solving the problem of neo-colonialism and under development but still the problem.

4.The LDC s have formed regional and inter regional groups like Arab league, COMESA ECOWAS, EAC etc. for the aim of strengthening and widening their market, organizing labor within their nations and cooperating in different economic activity.

5.Promotion of Coopera




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