Explain the main causes of the first world war.


It fought from 1914 to 1918. Participants were Triple alliance (German, Austria and Italy),

triple entente (Britain, France, Russia).


long term causes:

-Formation of military alliances ie triple alliance and triple entente.

-Development of capitalism into monopoly stage.

-Rise of European nationalism.


-Balkan crisis.

-European balance of power.

short term causes:

Assassination of Prince Archiduke Ferdinand (the heir to Austria-Hungary) and his wife Sophie

at Sarajevo city. (Sarajevo Assassination).

Analyse six causes if the second world war.


-Rise of fascism and Nazism in Europe.

-Effects of the great economic depression.

-Failure of the league of Nations.

-Effects of Versailles peace treaty (Failure of peace treaty).

-Hitler and Mussolini’s aggressive expansion policies.

-Formation of military alliances.

-Failure of appeasement policy.

-Failure of the league of nations.

-Spanish civil war.

-Acquisition of new colonies.

Short term causes:

-German invasion to Poland.

How the great economic depression affected east Africa and what were the solutions?


-Intensive exploitation of African resources.

-Fall of prices of agricultural products.

-Fall of wages.

-Mass unemployment.

-Reduction of government expenditure.


Increase campaign for crop cultivation eg “grow more crops”.

-New and effective ways of collecting taxes.

-Intensification of peasant production.

-Increase intervation in growing crops eg sukumaland cotton scheme, Mbulu destocking


Discuss the effects of the world wars on the countries of East Africa.


*first world war (1914-1918, participants triple alliance and Triple entente).

*second world war (1939-1945, participants axis powers ad. Allied/democratic powers).


-Depopulation. Thousands of east Africans were killed or wounded in the fighting, diseases,

malnutrition or overworking (some were recruited as porters).

-Decline of agricultural production.

-Increase inflow of European settlers eg in Kenya.

-Place for recruitment. eg Tanga sent about 19,000 soldiers to Burma, India, Palestine etc.

-Rise of mass nationalism.

-Establishment of import substitution industries. They manufactured beverages, beef, soap,

butter and margarine.

-Intensive exploitation. eg land alienation in Kikuyu Highlands which led to Mau Mau war

from 1952-1960’s.

-Destruction of properties such as roads, railways, houses, food storage facilities etc.

-Decline of international trade between colonies and metropole.

-Hunger, famine and starvation which killed many people.

-Change of colonial status ie Mandate and trusteeship territory eg Tanganyika.

Explain the roles of welfare associations, religious movements and co-operative societies in the struggle for independence in east  Africa


Show the contribution made by independent churches and early welfare association towards the development of modern nationalism


What was the contribution of Africa independent churches movement in the struggle against colonialism in central Africa


-create forum by which freedom fighters meet and discuss their matters

-brought about awareness to the people on the evils of colonialism

-stimulated unity among the people

-laid the foundation for the struggle for independence

-in some nations political parties fought for independence developed from associations eg.TAA to TANU in Tanganyika.

-it is from this welfare associations nationalistic leaders come from eg.Jomo kenyata from Mau mau to KANU.

Examine the factors for Nationalism in Africa after the Second World War


Why is 1945 considered to be an important turning point in the development of African nationalism?


Outline the factors for the rise of mass nationalism in East Africa


-the role played by UNO

-the role played by ex-soldiers

-the role played by USA

-the role played by USSR

-the role of pan Africanism

-second world war and its impact

-success of other nations

Account for Zanzibar Revolution


Show  to what extent the  Zanzibar revolution has proved to be necessity to the Zanzibar and Tanzania in general.


Analyze the causes of Zanzibar revolution 


-unfair  election of 1961 and 1963 by Arabs

-racial segregation by Arabs

-land alienation

-poor provision of social services

-burning of political parties ie UMMA

-exploitation of Africans

-bad leadership of Muhamed Shamte of minority government

-lack of freedom among the people.

Examine the organization and other problems which TANU had to takle before the attainment of flag independence.


Describe the main problems that had to be overcome in the attainment of independence in Tanzania or Rwanda and Urundi.


-eliminate the differences among the leaders

-develop unity among the people

-solve the problems of tribalism

-build their economy to raise their funds

-improvement of transport and communication

-provision of education to her people

Summarize the main issues which brought Mau Mau movement


What were the causes of Mau Mau in Kenya?


Discuss the factors for Mau Mau in Kenya.


-land alienation


-forced labor

-return of ex-soldiers

-burning of political parties like KANU by colonial government

-exploitation and colonial torture

-assasnation of nationalistic leaders

-despise of African culture ie polygamism and women circumsion

Discribe the factors which lead to the independence of Ghana in 1957


Why was Ghana among the earliest Africa countries to achieve independence.


-good leadership of Kwame Nkrumah

-Ghana was a small country

-absence of many settlers

-absence of tribalism ie use of English as common language

-role played by mass media ie radio Accra

-role of pan-Africanism

-Unity among the people

Why Mozambique attained her independence through armed struggle? ( give six points)


why did people of Angola and Mozambique take up arms against Portuguese colonialism?


In Zimbabwe and other Portuguese colonies ,independence come into through armed struggle .why was this so?


Why was it necessary for Zimbabwe to use armed struggle in order to achieve national independence


Why did the Portuguese colonies in Africa engage in armed struggle to liberate themselves?


Portuguese colonialism in Africa was the last to be eradicated. Why was this the case?


-Portuguese were poor so depended on colonies to become rich

-Portugal policies of land alienation, forced labour, taxation e.t.c.

-burning of political parties like FRELIMO,MPLA e.t.c

-poor provision of social services

-assassination of political leaders and sent them to exile eg. Samwel Machel , Jonathan Savimbi, Edwardo  Mondeline

-Portuguese consider her colonies as overseas territory

-richness of the colonies ie. availability of minerals.

-dis-appointment from the major powers.

Which problems did Uganda faced in the course of her struggle for independence?



-dis unity

-relligionalism (catholic Vs Protestant)

-poor infrastructures and communication

-lack of enough funds

-opposition from colonial government

-difference ideologies among the leaders

What factors have delayed Namibia’s attainment of independence?


Why has it taken so long for Namibia to achieve Independent


Identify the external and internal forces which made Namibia to be the last country to eradicate colonialism in Africa.


-burning of political parties i.e. SWAPO

-presence of many settlers who denied self-independence

-strong opposition from colonial government

-high investment by western investors, ie.copper, lead, silver, zink and uranium

-lack of fund to meet war necessities

-presence of minerals which were highly needed by colonialist

-dis unity among the Africans.

Explain the factors that enabled Tanganyika to get independence  before Kenya and Uganda


What were the reasons that led Tanganyika to achieve independence before the other east African states?


Examine six factors which enabled Tanganyika to attain her independence early than kenya


-unity among the people

-good leadership of J.K.Nyerere

-use of Kiswahili language

-absence of tribalism

-few settlers in the colonies

-good support from sir Richard Turnbull

-role played by UNO

-Tanganyika was a trusteeship territory

-success of  India under Mohamed Mahatma Gandhi

with (9) points account for the variation of forms of decolonization in Africa


The struggle for independence in Africa has taken different  forms  depending on the nature of colonial system and internal circumstances .Discuss


-nature of colonial masters

-nature of the colony

-dis-appointment from major European power

-settlers availabity in the colonies

-assassination of nationalistic leaders

-burning of political parties

-settlers policies of land alienation, forced labour, taxation)etc.

-difference in ideologies among African leaders

-role of African leaders

What problems did Nigeria face during the struggle for independence?


Explain the problems that faced the nationalist struggle in Nigeria during 1950s ( NECTA 2008)


Examine six problems encountered by the Africans during mass nationalism in Africa (NECTA 2016)


-tribalism and ethinism between Fulani &Hausa

-regionalism (south Vs north)

-religious difference between Muslim and Christian

-divide and rule policy by the British

-education differences

-vastness of an area

-lack of fund to run nationalist struggle.

Show the contribution of working class in its different stage of evolution in the struggle for independence  in any one country in east Africa.


What were the effects of Mau Mau in Kenya


Show the contribution of Mau Mau in the struggle for independence in Kenya


-It foster constitutional development in Kenya

-colonialist made some reforms in their administrative system

-exploitation was reduced by the colonialist

-it pave the way to colonialism

-it opposed all forms of exploitation

-it was a lesson to colonialist that Kenyans were not ready to be colonized

What role played by Kwame Nkrumah in the independence of Ghana and other  African countries.


The independence of Ghana of 1957 strengthened the struggle for independence for other African states. Justify by giving six relevant points


-unified people

-educate mass  African nationalism

-brought about awareness among the people

-he formed political parties to fight for independence

-developed patriotism among the Africans to fight for independence


-supported other countries both materially and morally

-he called the meetings to convince other African leaders to fight for independence

-he gave military base in Ghana for the other nations to prepare for struggle for independence

Discuss the nature of nationalistic struggle in any east African country after 1945


-formation of political parties to  struggle for independence

-rising of demonstrations and boycotting

-negotiating with colonialist to grant independence

-using mass media to influence independence ie Sauti ya TANU

-waging of guerrilla wars to colonialist

-through underground movement

After the World war 2 both USA and USSR were opposed to colonialism but for different reasons.discuss



-To spread capitalist ideals

-to get areas to meet capitalist demands through trade liberalization ie.raw material, cheap labour, market,etc.


-to spread socialist ideologies

-to oppose the capitalist policy of exploitation of man by man.

Discuss the steps taken by the people of Zanzibar in solving  the political,economic and social problems  since the revolution in 1964.


Discuss how Zanzibar benefited from Zanzibar  revolution


Show the extent to which people of Zanzibar have benefited for the 1964 Zanzibar revolution


Elaborate six ways in which the Zanzibar Revolution brought positive changes in the living condition of the people of the isles 



-Construction Of Housing By The Government which was distributed to people freely ie.in kikwajuni, michenzani, kilimani, chakechake, mandungu etc.

-many schools were constructed by government and education was given freely from primary to university level

-transport problems were solved as the government bought ships like Mv-ukombozi, Mv-uhuru, Mv-mapinduzi, Mv-maendeleo.

-Medical services were given freely  in both towns and villages.


-nationalization of land and plantations from Arabs which were distributed to Africans

-provision of employment to the Africans of high rank replacing the Arabs

-Africans regain their lost land

-several industries were constructed like sugar, shoe, furniture and milk were established


-Formation of revolutionary government under (ASP) in which every citizen  has got equal rights

-formation of Democratic Republic government of Tanzania 1964.

Explain the effects of Zanzibar revolution:-



-destruction of properties

-people enjoyed the freedom

-overthrown of minority government

-people regain their lost land

-people regain their lost independence

Why and how were peasant marketing cooperatives established from the 1930’s in East African colonies. 


*Peasant and marketing co-opeeativea were established to safe guard the rights of peasants

and providing for the markets/secure markets for the peasant’s cultivated crops.

Examples are Kilimanjaro Native Cooperative Union, Bukoba Buhaya Cooperative Union.

Reasons for their establishment:

-To remove and eliminate middlemen in marketing boards of cash crops.

-To support education of students who come from poor families.

-To strengthen employment opportunities to people from rural areas.

-Cater for peasants rights of the given area.

-To fight for security of peasant’s lands.

-To fight for better prices of peasant’s cash crops.

Explain the roles of welfare associations, religious movements ams cooperative societies in the struggle for independence in east Africa. 


-They promotes unity.

-They acted as training schools fie African leaders.

-They raised awareness among Africans on their rights.

-They laid foundation for formation of African political parties.

-they provided social services and social clubs for Africans.

-They aired the evils of colonialism openly.

-They exposed the true colour and intention of whites.

What was the contributions of Africa independent church Movement in the struggle against colonialism in central Africa? 


-Manifested to fight evils of colonialism such as land alienation and taxation.

-Provide unity among Africans.

-Provided offices for Africans to meet and plot different strategies on how to eradicate


-Provided leaders.

-Participate in formation of political parties.

-It gave moral and material support.

-Provided social services to Africans.

-They opposed racial segregation.

-They exposed missionaries as agents of colonialism.

*Generally, independent church movements had some weaknesses such as lack of enough

fund, opposition from white missionary churches, opposition from colonial governments,

some were violent, internal conflicts, betrayal etc.

Examine the factors for nationalism in Africa after the second world war.  


-Intensive exploitation of Africa can resources.

-The role of colonial education.

-The role of African soldiers (ex soldiers)

-Dictatorial nature of colonial government.

-The formation of UNO.

-The role of USA.

-The role of USSR.

-In do Pakistan independence.

-Pride of Ethiopia.

-Role of Pan Africanism.

-Role of Bandung Conference

Discuss the roles played by nationalist political parties in the struggle for independence in Africa. 


-Provided Unity.

-Educating Africans about the evils of colonialism.

-Helped peasants to press the colonial governments.

-Struggled for democratic governments.

-Opposed land alienation and inflow of settlers in Africa.

-Leadership training, eg Jomo Kenyatta, JK Nyerere.

-Provision of education.

-Arose political awareness among Africans.

-Organized African active fightings against colonial rule, eg ANC used Umkonto we Size and PAC used POQO in South Africa.

With examples explain the various forms of  African decolonization:-


-constitutional/political struggle


-armed struggle

-constitutional methods.

With concrete examples from various parts of Africa, assess eight factors that determined the forms of decolonization in Africa. (Necta 2012 QN 9).


Africans decolonized through constitutional means, armed struggle and revolution means.


-Status of the colony.

-Nature of the colonial government.

-Level of investment.

-Number of settlers.

-Economic status of the colony.

-Economic status of colonialists.

-Soil fertility and climatic condition.

-Type of colonial economy.

The independence of Tanganyika in 1961 was inevitable development given the nature of the colonial state and the global situation that existed from 1945. How far this is true?


-It was a mandate territory.

-It was not a settler.

-Role of USSR (to spread socialism).

-Role of Pan Africanism.

-Role of sir Richard Turnbull.

-Absence of serious tribalism.

-Role of Mass media.

-Role of J.K Nyerere.

-There was no dominant class distinction between educated and wealthy people that could

arouse jealousy.

-Role of Ghana.

-Role of UNO.

Explain the factors which enabled Tanganyika to get independence before Kenya and Uganda.


* Tanganyika got her independence in 1961, Uganda 1962 and Kenya 1963 (clockwise!).

-Tanganyika was a Mandate /trusts sheep territory.

-Good leadership of late J. K Nyerere.

-Unity among the people.

-Absence of serious tribalism in Kenya.

-The role of United Nations Organization (UNO).

-Absence of many settlers.

-Role of mass media eg Sauti ya Tank.

-Role of Kiswahili language.

-Role of Richard Turnbull.

-Role of TANU.

*Generally, Tanganyika independence contributed much to the independence of Kenya and

Uganda. Also Tanganyika was a committee for liberation in South of Africa under OAU.

Why was Ghana among the earliest African countries to achieve independence?


*Ghana attained her independence in 1957 under the leadership of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah.


-Good leadership of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah.

-Presence of strong political party which was CPP ( Convention Peoples Party).

-Role of mass media eg Radio Accra, Accra evening news.

-The use of English language which was understood by many people.

-No strong tribalism in Ghana.

-The role played by Pan-African conference of Manchester in 1945. Dr. Nkrumah gained

more techniques form Pan -Africanists such as William Due Bois and Marcus Garvey.

-Good communication system in Ghana.

-It was a small country, thus freedom fighters could reach people easily.

“The independence of Ghana of 1957 strengthened the struggle for independence for other African states”. Justify by giving six relevant points.


-Inspiration of Dr. Nkrumah.

-Strategic support.

-Mobilization of independent states eg Accra conference of 1958 and 1960.

-Financial support eg in Congo and Guinea.

-Promotion of African unity.

-Promotion of sovereignty, he condemned nuclear activities of France and Britain in Algeria.

-Scholarship support.

Analyse the problems which faced Uganda during the nationalistic struggles.



-Religious problem.


-Uneven distribution of social services.

-Existence of social inequalities or division.

-Presence of many political parties.

When and why did Apartheid policies emerge in South Africa?  


-it originated from the Boers in 1910 and made an official in 1948. Apartheid means colour

separation when Nationalist Party (N. T) of Dr. Malan came into power.

-it involved  excluding Africans from participating in the politics and government.

-Residential segregation (creation of Bantustans) is Soweto.

-Africans were discriminated in provision of social services.

-Restricting African movement from moving from one place to another.

-Africans banned from owning the best and arable land.

-Restricting Africans from employment through 1911 act. Better jobs were reserved for


–However, from 1970’s, Africans began protesting the apartheid policy.

Why was the struggle to eliminate apartheid in South Africa difficult and prolonged?


-Opposition from the colonial government. It arrested freedom fighters and imprison them.

-Lack of enough funds.

-Imperialist support of South African minority apartheid government.

-Presence of many settlers.

-Use of force and violence in suppressing the anti-apartheid movements eg Soweto

massacre of 1960, sharpville massacre of 1976.

-Lack of support from neighbourhood states which were also still under colonialism eg

Namibia which hot her independence in 1990, Zimbabwe which got her independence in

1975 while Mozambique signed Nkomati Accord with the Boer government to stop South

African ANC freedom fighters from using it as a spring board.

-Lack of cooperation among South African political parties.

Explain the methods that were employed by the black society in South Africa in the struggle for their liberation. 


-Mass demonstrations.

-Formation of political parties.

-Support from the Cuban army.

-The use of independent churches.

-Operation of nationalist movements from the front line states such as Tanzania, Ghana.

-Support of OAU. eg Tanzania (which was committee for African liberation under OAU).

-Use of underground movement eg POQO by P. A. C and Umkonto we Sizwe by A.N.C.

-Use of mass media, eg “mine hoy” novel, use of songs eg “Together as one” by lucky Dune.

-Use of Mass Media, eg Radio Freedom of Mazimbu Morogoro created by South African freedom fighters in exile.

Discuss the effects of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Southern Rhodesia


*In 1965, the white settlers under Ian Smith declared Zimbabwe to be an independent states

from Britain. Britain failed to take net decisive measure against thus.

Effects of UDI:

-Banning of African political parties and movements.

-Increase of white settlers in Zimbabwe, thus more land alienation and racial segregation eg

at the end of 1975 estimated number of settlers was 278,000

-Failure yo attain independence by peaceful means, it forced Africans yo use armed struggle.

-Increase of white exploitation on African resources both natural and artificial.

-It led to increase of unfair treatment against natives.

-Led yo delay of majority rile in Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia).

Why was it necessary for Zimbabwe to use armed struggle in order to achieve national independence.


*Political parties in Zimbabwe were ZANU, UFP, DP, ZNP, RF (of white settlers). It hot her

independence in 1975 under ZANU.


Banning of African political parties eg ZANU.

-Presence of many white settlers in Zimbabwe, at independence, the number of settlers was

about 278,000 and their families.

-Opposition from colonial government.

-Unilateral Declaration of Independence.

-Imperialist influence. It supported minority rule in Zimbabwe.

Portuguese colonialism in Africa was the last to be eradicated. Why was this case?


-Portuguese were the first Europeans to come and colonized Africa. They came from 15th

century ( 1497).


-Attitude of Portuguese towards her colonies (everlasting civilization mission).

-Poverty of the country (economic status of the colonialist).

-Assassination of African political leaders eg Eduardo Mondlane on 3rd February, 1967.

-Sizeable number of settlers in her colonies.

-The literacy of Portuguese (ignorant)

-Portugal was a fascist state (no democracy) thus never believe in Democratic processes.

Portugal was led by dictator Salazar.

-The role of NATO, it made Portugal to fail to realize the role and operation of FRELIMO.

-Economic level of the colony

-Cruelty and harshness of Portuguese. They used secret police known as PIDE who were

very harsh.

-Over reaction. The Portuguese government over reacted to every small incident, eg its

police  killed 600 demonstrators who were opposing new agricultural policy at Mueda

-No meaningful participation of Africans in the government. Only Assimilados who were

only 1% of Africans had representatives.

– Racist nature of Portuguese. The “poor white settlers” who introduced in the colony in

1960’s, competed with Africans in employments.

-Forced cultivation of cash crops such as cotton, thus hunger and famine.

-inadequate provision of social services such as educational and health.

What are the causes and effects of the Mau Mau movement in Kenya?


*it was the movement which was led by Sedan Kimathi, Harry Thuku, Jomo Kenyatta,

General Mathenge etc. It was mainly in Kikuyu. It started from 1952 to 1960’s.


-Land alienation especially in Kikuyu Highland.

-Heavy taxation eg hut tax, matiti tax, kipande system etc.

-Poor working conditions.

-Disrespectful of Kenyan traditions.

-Low wages to natives.

-Racial segregation.



-Destruction of properties.

-Led to independence of Kenya in 1963.

-Led to formation of national political parties eg KANU and KADU.

Explain the causes and effects of the 1964 Zanzibar revolution.


Why was armed struggle necessary in order to attain independence in Zanzibar.


*It was the movement against Arab minority government in Zanzibar. Zanzibar revolution

was ASP youth wing leader John Tito Okelo from Uganda and Abeid A man Karume became

the first President of Zanzibar.


-Land alienation specially by Arabs and British

-Forces labour.

-Heavy taxation especially after the second world war.

-Dissatisfaction of 1963 general election.

-Disrespecful of African traditions.

-Racial segregation.

-Low a wages to natives.

-Poor working conditions.



-Destruction of properties.

To what extent people of Zanzibar have benefited from the 1964 Zanzibar revolution?


-Major means of production came under the people (government).

-Trading sector became under Africans.

-The financial sector came under Africans.

-Improvement of infrastructures eg roads.

-Establishment of standardized social services eg hospitals and schools.

-Safety was ensured to the people of Zanzibar by KMKM and JWTZ armies.

-Equality retired in Zanzibar.

-Me and better houses were constructed in areas such as Chake Chake.

-New government bought new ships eg MV Maendeleo and MV Uhuru.

-Union with Tanganyika.

Assess the political challenges facing Nigeria which has been inherited from colonial regime.


The present political nature of Nigeria is the outcome of its precolonial and colonial history. 


-Tribalism and Ethnicity among the Fulani, Hausa, Yoruba.

-Regionalism, even political parties based in their regions eg Northern region, western region,

eastern region and southern region.

-Religious differences. Less educated Moslems feared that educated Christians would

jeopardise their interests leading to continuous struggles between Moslems and Christian.

-Coup d’Etat’s and political instabilities.

– Poor industrial base.

-Poor economy.

Account for the state of political instability and coups in many African countries since the attainment of political independence. 


Account for the States of political instabilities ams coup d’etats in many African

 countries since the attainment of independence.


Elaborate six causes of political instabilities in Africa. (Necta 2013, QN 7).


*Political instability is a situation where by the government does not stay into power for the

period allocated constitutionally but gets overthrown by the people, opposition or by the



-Tribalism eg Rwanda and Burundi

-Religious intolerance and extremists. eg Nigeria. Book Haram, Al Shabaab, Ant Baraka.

-Colonial legacy. eg Zaire under Mobutu.

-Multipartism (political beliefs) eg in Kenya and Zimbabwe.

-Selfishness of African leaders eg Robert Mugabe.

-Dictatorship of some leaders who mistreated their subjects like Kwame Nkrumah.



-Presence of natural resources, eg DRC (diamonds), Sudan, Somalia (oil) etc.

How the international community involved itself in maintaining peace in East and Central

Africans regions since 1960? (Nectar 2002, QN 8).

Answer: -International community refers to the various international organizations that were formed,

among other objectives, to promote peace and cooperation among member states and the

world at large, eg UN, the Commonwealth, the French Community, OAU.

-UNO helped decolonization processes in Africa eg Mozambique, South Africa etc.

-UNO helped to declare sanctions to countries that endanger international peace and order

through the security council.

-SADC and Commonwealth share military cooperation in exchange of military tactics.

-UN helped to maintain peace and stability in the world.

Promotion of trade relations among neighbor countries linked by mutual interests.

-Refugee assistance through UNHCR under UNO.

-International Criminal for Justice helped trials of people accused by manslaughters and

other inhuman injustices.

-Helped in promotion of democracy in the world.

-Peaceful negotiations, mediation, conciliation or arbitration and peaceful settlement of


Political changes which have been taking place in African sates since the second half of 1980’s were the result of inevitable internal and external circumstances. Discuss.


How far the political changes which have been taking place in African states since the second half of the 1980’s is a result of inevitable internal and external circumstances?


Political changes are like adoption of mult party system, democracy, capitalism etc.

Reasons for the change:

-End of the cold war.

-Economic crisis of 1980’s.

-Pressure from international monetary fund IMF and world bank.

-Corruption and mismanagement of public funds.

-Pressure from multinational organizations and business people.

-Failure of military regimes yo bring progressive changes.

Examine the problems which have faced most African countries since attaining independence at the beginning of the second half of 20th century.


Analyse the problems facing African countries that originated from their colonial heritage.


Inherited problems from colonial past are major hindrances to the development of Africa after independence. Justify this statement by giving six points. (Nectar 2015 QN 10).


Analyse six problems facing African countries that originated from their colonial heritage. (necta 2012, QN 8).


Colonial heritage means all practises, systems or ways of life that a country or

its people have inherited from their colonial rulers.


-Overdependence on agriculture and mono crop.

-Lack of manufacturing industries.

-Education system.

-Lack of government accountability.

-Segregation and racism.

-Influence of foreign governments.

-Massive importation of consumable goods.

-Poor infrastructures.


-Tribalisms and ethnicity

With concrete examples from Tanzania, asses the factors that made independent African states to change their political, social and economic outlook a few years after independence. (Necta 2008, QN 6).


Discuss factors that led to changes of political and economic ideology in post independent Africa.


-Poor and unbalanced education.

-Lack of proper medical facilities and medical personnel.

-Lack of proper infrastructure and networking.

-Mono crop and export oriented economy.

-To nationalize major means of production.

-To avoid political opposition thus formed one party system.

-Promote unity and solidarity among Africans.

-To avoid imperialist influence on African politics.

-To establish local government.

-To promote hood governance.

-To eradicate racial segregation in provision of social services

Discuss type of economies inherited at independence.


weak manufacturing industry.

-Dual agriculture economy. 70% still relied on peasant.

-Poor legacy of transport and communication.

-Investment mainly came from abroad.

-Poll tax and agricultural marketing boards which paid fixed low price to farmers.

-Weak educational system.

Assess different policies adopted by African states in solving their economic problems.


-Nationalization of the economy eg in Tanzania.

-Africanization eg in Kenya.


-HEP production eg Akasombo dam in Ghana, Aswan in Egypt, Cabora Bass a in Mozambique, Owen falls in Uganda and Nyumba ya Mungu in Tanzania.

-Agricultural reforms eg “Uhuru na Nazi” in Tanzania in early 1970’s.

-Economic planning. Some got assistance from USSR eg Tanzania, while some got assistance from World Bank, IMF etc.

-Transformation of provision of Education, eg UPE in Tanzania and construction of educational infrastructures such as schools and collages.

-Introduction of new philosophies eg self reliance which aimed to increase

production of both cash and food crops in Tanzania.

-Change of curriculum to suit African environment

Assess weaknesses and strengths of policies adopted in Africa after




-Many people enrolled in schools due to expansion of classes.

-Several medium sized industries were constructed eg National Batteries in


-Several HEP were constructed to provide electricity.

-Nationalization of the economy. Governments took control of the economy.

-Modernization of agriculture and farming.


-Lack of enough funds.

-Means of examination in schools remained the same.

-Structure of education remained pyramidal in shape just like during


-Most HEP faced several problems such as seasonal fluctuations of water.

-Sever wars. eg Kagera war of 1978/79.

-Debt crisis.

-Fall of foreign investment.

-Resorted of black markets.

Highlight strengths and weaknesses of provision of education soon after




-Curriculum was mainly in African context.

-No racial or religious discrimination.

-Emphasize on gender balance.

-Government sponsored kind of education.

-Emphasize on individual development and collective cooperation

-Number of illiteracy rate reduced and number of enrollment increased.


-Quantitative gain and qualitative loss ie examination leakage, inefficiency and

lack of experienced teachers, decline in grade standards etc.

-Preferences. Most parents and students preferred academic educational rather

than vocational educational.

-Low literacy rate in some states inspire of improvement in educational services.

For example, very few states south of Sahara have literacy rate over 30%.

-Unemployment to teachers.

-Poor education policies with poor implementations.

-Lack of enough resources.

-Corruption and embellzments of public funds.

-Remoteness of some schools hindered teachers and others educational officers.

-Beliefs and attitudes. Early 1960’s and 1970’s, most Africans had negative

attitudes towards education.

Assess factors for the change and functions of legal institutions.


Justify the steps or measures taken to overcome problems facing African states since independence.


-Construction of infrastructures.

-Formation of single party system.

-Adoption of socialism.

-Nationalization of the economy.

-Adoption of equality based ideologies such as ujamaa villages.

-Establishment of industries to reduce dependence.

-Increase of agricultural production for both cash and food crops.

Describe the historical events that led to the formation of the union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar in April 1964.


*Under one time, Tanganyika and Zanzibar were under similar colonial master

ie Britain, thus, have the same experience from colonialists. Both use Swahili

language as their first language. They united in1964.

Historical evens which led to their formation;

-Historical background. Being colonized both by British.

-Means of communication, they both use Swahili language.

-Same ideology of their political parties which were ASP in case of Zanzibar and

TANU in case of Tanganyika.

-Security reasons.

-Trade links between the two.

-Intermarriages made the two states friends thus joined yo form one nation.

Discuss the efforts made by Tanzania government to bring about economic freedom since 1961.


Explain steps taken by people of Tanganyika in solving their political,

economic and social problems since independence.


-Changing economic policies eg self reliance 1967.

-Nationalism of the economy. Parastatals eg TANESCO, TRC, NIC etc from 1967.

-Adoption of Ujamaa policies from 1967.

-Provision of free socials services from 1960’s.

-Development of infrastructures eg roads, railways from 1960’s.

-Expansion of agriculture eg through “siasa na kilimo” in 1972.

-Trade liberation. This was an economic strategy from 1986.

-Privatization of some public enterprises from 1990’s.

What was the historical significance of Arusha Declaration.


*Arusha declaration was introduced by the late J. K Nyerere of Tanzania in 1967

aiming to change political, economic and social attitude of the majority.

Historical significances of Arusha declaration:

-Nationalization of major means of production by the government on behalf of

the people.

-Adoption of socialism which turned Tanzanian economy from capitalist mode to

socialist mode.

-Emergence of single political party (TANU/CCM) which reduced political

conflicts among citizens of Tanzania.

-Led to vilagization policy which aimed to promote accountability and increase

of production of both cash and food crops.

-Promoted stable government under J. K Nyerere.

*Generally, Arusha declaration ended by Zanzibar resolution in 1992. This turned

back the economy of Tanzania to capitalist mode and introduction of


Colonial and neo colonialism were both exploitative systems being experienced in Africa. To what extent did colonialism pace way to neo  colonialism?


– The system of administration during colonialism.

-Colonial education corrupted the minds of Africans.

-Colonialism made Africans dependent on western nations (dependence


-During colonialism the colonialist determined the prices of crops that were

produced by Africans.

-Intensive exploitation of African resources during colonialism.

-Discouragement of local African craftsmen by discouraging African technology.

-Control of Markets by metropolis.

Why was it necessary for the African states to change their political, ideological and administrative systems after gaining independence?


-Adoption of socialism eg Self Reliance for Tanzania.

-Establishment of local governments.

-Formation of economic reforms (adoption of equally based ideologies) eg

Ujamaa na Kujitegema in Tanganyika, Harambee in Kenya etc.

-Change of constitutions.

-Political manifesto (having political equality, social justice, human dignity,

freedom from diseases and exploitation, equal opportunities and high growing

per capita income).

-Sovereignty and security (for strong maintainance from disintegration).

-Unification of states eg Nigeria (primarily Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa States).

Identify the problems which have faced most African countries since  attaining independence at the beginning of the second half of the 20th century. 


-Political instabilities eg in Nigeria, Sudan, Angola, Central African Republic ect.

-Natural calamities such as earthquakes, foods, hurricanes, drought etc.

-Refugees problems eg from war states such as Congo

-Corruption and embellzement.

-Civil wars in Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi etc.

-Inadequate human and financial resources.


-Economic dependence.

-Regionalism created by colonialists.

-Tribalism eg in Nigeria, Rwanda.

-Boundary disputes eg Tanzania and Uganda in 1978/79.


-Mass illiteracy.

-Poor communication system.

*Generally, different strategists have been adopted by African states to eliminate

or reduce these challenges. Such strategies are like construction of

infrastructures etc.

What so you understand by neo colonialism? Show how it operated in Africa.


*it is the survival of colonial system despite the formal attainment of political

independence. It operated through social, political, economical, military and

technical means, also through international institutions such as the world bank

and IMF.

How it operated:

-Through establishment of military bases in Africa. Mainly yo secure their

interests in those areas.

-Through supporting military coups and armed conflicts eg in Congo.

-Through unequal terms of trade. This is between developed and developing  countries.

-Creation of dependence economies.

-Through aids and grants.

-Through destabilizing African political system. This is done through

introduction of multi party system.

-Through technological dependency. This is through investing in sectors that

cannot make the African countries technologically independence eg heavy

industries. Also, developing countries bought technology in very high prices.

-Through invisible governments.

-Through controlling the world market.

-Through propaganda ie supporting giant companies such as Rockefeller, Ford

etc, also through CNN, BBC, etc.

-Through evangelism eg Jehovah witnesses made some troubles in some

developing nations by teaching their followers not to salute the new national

flags after independence.

*Strategies to avoid neo colonialism: effective use of natural resources, unity among less developed states,alliance between Latin America and Africa etc.

Why was the dream of a united African not achieved?


-Lack of unity among African states.

-Political instabilities and chaos in some states.

-Selfishness of some African leaders.

-Differences in economic levels.

-Environmental problems.

-Sense of inferiority among some small states.

-Less involvement of the people.

-Differences in economic and political ideologies. While some followed socialism

such as Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia, some followed capitalism such as South Africa.

-Timing of independence.

-National interests.

Discuss the effort made by Tanzanian government to bring about economic freedom since 1961


Show how Tanzania has been struggle in establishing independent socialist economy since 1967


In the establishment of economic freedom /socialist economy Tanzania government had introduced economic policies as shown below:-


-a policy of vilagilization :-was introduced to encourage people to produce both food crops and cash crops. Through this policy African were required to move from scattered areas to form lager Ujamaa /socialist village where they were given with ox-plough, fertilizers and better seeds to brings about maximum production


-a policy of Nationalization :-where the government took by force the industries which were under colonial and private sectors and put under the control of government.e.g.it nationalized Tanzania Millers,Chande industries, Pure food products  and association Traders Ltd(Mwanza)

Also the government shareholders in some industries like;-Kilimanjaro Brewery, Tanzania Brewery, British American tobacco, Bata shoe company, Tanganyika metal box, and Tanganyika Portland Cement.

In addition to that new industries were constructed many industries based on consumable goods e.g. Tanzania Motor Corporation (TAMCO) in coastal region.


-a privatization policy: by which the import-export business from foreign private companies were to be controlled by a state.e.g.Smith Mackenzie Dalgety(east Africa),Ltd and International  Trading &credit of Co of Tanganyika which deals with external trade were put under  State Trading Cooperation (STC) after Arusha Declaration.  ( NECTA 2008)

What measure were taken by Tanzanian after independence to enable every citizen to get education.

Expansion in the numbers of higher education institutions

– new curriculums and syllabuses

– training of new teachers

-Africanization of educational system and topics

– less control by missionaries of the education system (secularization)

Post independent regional co-operation in Africa has been plagued by problems. Discuss


Why was the dream of a united Africa not been achieved


The history of the organization of Africa unity is characterized by a number of problems “Discuss”


Identify the problems which have contorted the OAU organization for Africa units since it’s foundation in 1963


-political instability among the member state

-poor infrastructures like roads, railways

-poverty among the member country hence hinder accumulation of capital

-different ideologies among the member state

-difference in currency and its values, this hinders trade.

-lack of fund to support different projects

-civil wars

-lack of commitment among the member state (national interests).

-population growth rate

-environment hazards like floods, drought and etc.


-lack of common market.


Discuss the benefits gained by the members of the commonwealth


Discuss the objectives and prospects of the southern African development community 



-To promote transport and communication for easier distribution of goods among member states

-to intensify security and unity among the member states

-to promote employment opportunities among the member states

-to formulate common policies gered on solving global problems like diseases & environmental deterioration

-to reduce economic dependence

-to secure international cooperation


In some extent some economic integration had succeeded to:-

-brought about unity among the member state e.g. ECOWAS in west African states

-it improved infrastructures eg.through SADC opened Benguela railway in Mozambique,

-they formed development banks which finances trade and development projects in members states,e.g COMESA-headquter of the bank Bujumbura,

-it promoted employment among the member states

-member states have become more cooperatives in the field of trade,industry,and agriculture

-formation of military forces to maintain peace.e.g.ECOWAS formed ECOMOG.

Explain the strength and weakness of the United Nations Organization in African major issues.


The united Nations organization (UNO) has some political, social and economic gains to Tanzania. Discuss this statement by giving six points.

 Assess the achievement of the organization of Africa unity (OAU)in the light of it’s objectives 


Explain the objectives of the newly re-established east Africa community and how Tanzania is likely to benefit from it 


Explain the strength and weakness of the United Nations in Africa major issues 


-Successfully to fought  victories of war and natural calamities

-established African development bank (ADB) to support projects among the member countries

-through interaction of member states,agriculture,industry,transport & communication,education,trade were improved

-helped to resolve conflicts among the member  states.

-monitoring human rights practices among the member states

-assisting refugees to resettle them in peacefully places with cooperation to UNHCR.


-to promote cooperation among the nations economicaly,socialy,politicaly and culturally

-developing cooperation in solving problems among the member states

-to promote unity and solidarity of African states

-to cooperate and intensify efforts towards better life for the Africans

-to defend the sovereignty, integrity and independence of it’s members

-eradicating all forms of colonialism in Africa

Account for the state of political instability and coups in many African countries since attainment of political independence 


The present political nature of Nigeria is the outcome of it’s pre-colonial history. Explain 


With concrete examples from Tanzania ,assess the factors that made independent African states change their social, political and economic outlook a few years after independence


Political changes which have been taking place in Africa states since the second half of the 1980’s are result of inevitable internal and external circumstances “Discuss”


Analyse six problems facing African countries that originated from their colonial heritage 


Elaborate six causes of political instability


Inherited problem from colonialpast are major hinderaces to the development of Africa after independence. Justify this stamen  by giving six points



-Tribalism or ethnicity eg in Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, Somalia and Ethiopia. In Uganda and Nigeria ethnic divisions were even included in constitutions at the era of independence.

-Dictatorship and poor democratic practises eg in Rwanda, Tanzania, etc

-religious difference eg in Central African Republic, Nigeria etc.

-regionalism eg in South Africa.

-Mono culture agriculture. Eg Zambia eg Zanzibar (cloves), Ghana (cocoa). Prices of such crops are low, hence poor economic growth.

-neo-colonialism in most all former colonies

-corruption eg in Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa, Somalia. Most elites who became leaders of post independent states were wealthy intellectually and poverty stricken economically, that’s why most of them were absorbed in intense corruption and in somehow in unutterable nepotism.

-unequal distribution of political positions in most parts of Africa

-poor economics growth eg in Malawi

-political instability.

-coup d’ tat

-civil war eg in Somalia.

– Contest of power. Post African states have witnessed severe competition for power along regional ethnic lines. For example in Nigeria regions Iboland began to clamour for autonomy in 1966-1970, in Dahomey there were struggles among three political groups etc.

-Poor industrial base.

– Lack of national unity. Colonialists assembled different tribes so as to create modern African states during Berlin Conference in 1884-85. This was later not easy to establish national unity among African states eg in Rwanda and Burundi, Hutu and Tuts have been competing for a very long period of time, likewise in Uganda, the Baganda are contesting the control of the state over other tribes, similarly in Nigeria the Southerners are competing with the Northerners.

– Creation of invisible government by colonialists at the eve of independence.

– Economic crisis. This was due to price fluctuationsof primary products and an unbalanced system of trade in the world markets where Africa being the major victim. For example Ghana in 1955 and 1965 due to fall of prices of cocoa, in Senegal 47.2% of 1964-65 state budgets were spent on administrative salaries alone.

– Disrespectful of political machinery.

-Elite politicians. They had gone to European schools and brought to African European experienced. During struggles for independence it was not much of the challenge since it effectively mobilize the masses and rarlly in from ght for independence, but after independence, few were lost in petty squabbles, the masses were unable to compriend.

What have been the major successes and problems of O. A. U since its formation. 


*Formed on 25.05.1963. Its headquarters are in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Major success:

-Provided jobs for many refugees and helped them to return yo their homeland.

-Provided forum for discussion among it’s members.

-Provides loans and grants to its members through African Development Bank


-Helped in decolonization of many African countries such as South Africa and


Major Problems:

-Refugees from war fighting countries and areas affected by natural calamities

eg droughts eg Somalia.

-Difference levels of economic development among its members eg South Africa

vs Tanzania.

-Political instabilities eg in Congo.

-Being a voluntary organization, it lacked proper weapons to suppress its


-Imperialistic influence.

*OAU was changed into AU in 9.9.1999.

How has the membership in the Non Aligned Movement helped independent oAfrican countries. 


*NAM was formed in 1955 in Bandung Conference, Indonesia.

How it helped:

-Through solidarity, it enabled its members to have one voice.

-Managing neutralizing pressure extended by western states and eastern states.

-Helped in resolving political crises facing Africa today.

-Fighting extreme poverty.

-Fighting colonialism and neo colonialism.

-Maintain good diplomatic relation with other without bondage of ideology is

capitalism and socialism.

With relevant examples, show the challenges most likely to face the new east African community.


-Problem of democracy.

-Poor utilization of resources.

-Problem of peace, security and stability.

-Political instabilities in some members eg Rwanda, Burundi.

-A bid to create single east African market.

-Lack of enough qualified skilled manpower.

-Lack of awareness to most citizens.

-Poor transport and communication which hindered trade and movement of


-Presence of terror groups such as Al Shabaab in Kenya.


Despite its role in international community, the Organization of African unity OAU had several weaknesses. Explain.


-Failed to prevent and remove military regimes.

Failed to eradicate poverty.

-Failed to solve the problem of refugees.

-Failed to eradicate rampant economic  problems that are caused by neo colonialism.

-Lack of law enforcement.

How has the membership in the Non Aligned Movement helped independent African countries?


-NAM was formed in 1955 at Bandung Conference in Indonesia.

-Neutralizing part of pressure extended by NATO and WARSAW blocs.

-Helped in resolving political crises facing African today.

-It reminded and encourage weak African states to fulfil their obligations

towards their subjects by fighting extreme poverty.

-Helped countries to rely on their own efforts towards building strong economies

without assistance from either of the states eg the self-reliance ideology of

Tanzania in 1967.

Explain the reasons which led to the collapse of the East African community in 1977.


*It was the political union among the independent East African states formed in

Arusha Tanzania in 1967 by the heads if states ie J.K Nyerere (Tanzania), Jomo

Kenyatta (Kenya) and Milton Obote (Uganda).

Reasons for collapse:

-Differences in ideology ie Tanzania followed socialist path, Kenya followed capitalist path while Uganda followed fascist/military especially under Idd Amin Dada.

-1971military coup in Uganda which replaced Obote with Amin.

-Personal difference between Amin and Nyerere.

– Great losses and big debts.

-Difference levels of economic growth. Kenyan economy was higher followed by Tanzania and last Uganda.

-Imperialist maneuver, ie capitalists used Kenyan Attorney Charles Njonjo. Also imperialists were not in favour with the development of the East African Community  Common Market because it blocked openness of the market.

– Design of the intergrtaion. Heads of states inherited an organization that was meant to serve colonial interests. British Kenya benefited a lot from it, nothing changed much afterward. Kenya continued to benefit at the expense of the two sister countries, thus its break.

– Failure of ADB to promote balanced development of industries. After 1965, each member state established its own central bank. This made more difficult the transfer of funds among the states.

– Delay of contributions of Tanzania and Uganda. They felt not benefiting much from the organization.

– Currency differences. This restricted free transfer and exchange of currencies. This means no state was able to purchase goods from the other state.

-Competition in airways and steamer buses in 1977. Kenya launched them at Kisumu and Uganda followed the suit. Kenya expelled all Uganda workers and Uganda did the same. Tanzania crossed its border with Kenya, eventually the community collapsed.

“The united nations Organization (UNO) has some political, social, and economic gains to Tanzania”. Discuss this statement by giving six points.


UNO was formed in 1945 replacing the league of nations which failed to maintain world


Benefits yo Tanzania:

-Provision of quality education to the people and formulation of good education policies

through UNESCO (united nations educational scientific and cultural organization)

-Promotion of cultural heritage in Kilwa and Bagamoyo by providing software technologies

to workers.

-Peace and stability.

-Promotion of human rights.

-Overcome hunger through FAO which support agricultural sectors.

-Provision of loans, grants and strategies eg MKUKUTA and MKURABITA.

Examine six challenges of NAM.


Lack of financial resources.

-Political instabilities among its member states.

-Ideological differences.

-Absence of enforcement machinery (it is a voluntary organization).

-Conflicting international organization. By taking loans from IMF and World Bank against

NAM principles.

-Poverty among its members.

-Change in the world politics.

-Environmental challenges among its members states.

Explain the strengths and weaknesses of the united nations organization in African major issues. 



-Membership of all African nations.

-Military power (UN peace keeping force).

-Development through its organs such as UNICEF, WHO and UNDP.

-Humanitarian aids through UNHCR, WHO, Red Cross etc.

-Promotion of democracy.

-Financial support.


-Failure to solve some conflicts eg 2008/9 Sudan’s Omar Ally Bashir.

-Failure yo control piracy in the major oceans such as Indian ocean and Atlantic oceans.

-Irresponsible workers eg soldiers.

-Negativity towards UN. Most regard it as the arm of USA.

-Mismanagement of funds.

“The history of Organization of African Unity is characterized by a number of problems”. Elaborate.

Lack of enough fund. Some members delay to contribute and some even failed to contribute totally their annual payments

-Being a voluntary organization.

-Bilateral or double membership.

-Political instabilities.

– Religious differences.

– Problem of natural calamities eg floods in Mozambique in 2000, Tanzania (1987 and 1998 elnino), Sudan (almost every year). Also drought periods in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia.

– Environments challenges such as water pollution in the lakes and rivers; remnant of industries in towns and cities which are thrown in lakes

-Problem of diseases such as Malaria, typhoid, HIV AIDS etc.

-Poverty among citizens.

-Difference levels of economic development.

-Differences in economic ideologies and interstate disputes, in such circumstances they are not able to come together in most matters.

– Problem of no common currency. Most opted for dollars, pound or Francs in their transactions at international level.

-Poor industrial base and agriculturally oriented African economies.

– Differenced in economic development.

-Terrorism and presence of extremist groups such as Book Haram, Al Shabaab and Ant


-Imperialist maneuver on African politics.

-Dependent economy to most of African states.

– Incompetent leadership, eg some states faced a challenge of dictators such as Zaire (Mobutu).

– Problem of languages. While some tribes are proud of the venecular languages eg Maasai, Tswana and Zulu, some States embraces their former colonial masters languages, hence there are still elements of Anglophone, Francophone and Lusophone.

– Failed to use coercive measure in solving matters needing military intervention eg the Biafran war in Nigeria (1967 – 1970), failed to suppress militarily the apartheid regime in south Africa , inability to solve Rwandan and Burundi tribal discontents and inability to eradicate UNITA’s rebellion in Angola over legal government of Angola up to 2002.

-Failed to set ignited economic freedom after her member stars achieved their independence.

– There is a problem of refugees in African continent.

– Failed to overthrow and prevent military regimes that overthrew civil governments eg a case of Nigeria in 1979 when Sheu Shaghali overthrown, Burundi in 1994 when Melchior Ndabaye was overthrown or in Somalia when military junta under Said Barre declared war on people; in all these OAU did nothing!

– Major discussions and  resolutions passes by OAU exist on paper only is there is no binding force or phrase to compele any state to fulfill these resolutions. As persigned charter of OAU demanded its states to be free.

How is Tanzania is likely yo benefit from the objectives of the newly re -established East African Community?


-Trade liberalization.

-Investment and industrial development.

-Monetary and financial matters eg holding of pre and post budget consultation by ministers of finance etc

-Development of infrastructures eg east African road network and digital telecommunications transmutation project.

-Development of Human resources.

-Development of agriculture and natural resources.

-Provision of conducive environment for development.

-Establishment of regional anti monetary group.

Identify and explain the main sources of the middle East crisis and show the position of OAU on the conflict. 


*The middle east crisis is a situation where are conflicts among middle east countries. The most crisis being between Israel and Palestine.

Causes of the conflict:

-Land confiscation by Israelites.

-The religious question (control of Jerusalem city).

-Creation of Israel out of Palestine.

-Failure of UN to control Israel.

*the position of OAU:

OAU has been condemned Zionism (Israel expansionist policy) and Israel’s aggressive and violent actions against the Palestinians. OAU and its members have been providing moral support towards the Palestinians.

Assess the achievements of OAU in the light of it’s original objectives.


-Drew attention to African grievances from Europeans.

-Stimulated moral and courage to fight against colonialism and neo colonialism.

-Conveyed the message of freedom through movements.

-Promoted Unity among Africans from different ethnic groups.

-Promoted African cultural heritage.

-Assisting refugees in different countries like Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Angola.

-Assisting in the fight against natural calamities such as drought, earthquakes, tsunamis etc.

-Financial support through African Development Bank.

-Monitoring human rights in various parts of Africa.

-Mediating conflicts among its members eg border conflict between Algeria and Morocco.

-Promotion of agricultural researches.

-Promotion of trade and industrial development.

-End of colonialism in African states such as Zimbabwe, South Africa, Angola, Guinea Bissau, Somalia and Angola.

-Acted as a common voice for Africans in international affairs, eg it help liberation of South Africa and help African states to launch wars against imbalances in the world trade system, debt crisis and IMF and WB conditionalities.

-Help in establishment of regional integration such as EAC (2001), SADC (1980), COMESA (1993), ECOWAS (1975).

Discuss the roles played by OAU in decolonization of the African continent.


-Coordinating opposition of colonial rule.

-Assisted African leaders who were targeted by imperialists eg Sam Nujoma got assistance

from Tanzania under OAU.

-Aired the grievances of colonialism openly.

-Provided financial support to Africans.

-Provided moral support.

-Forum for discussion for African leaders who laid different strategies on how to eradicate


-Provided scholarship for African leaders (freedom fighters).



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