What is family?
Family is social group of people who are closely related to each other by blood, marriage or adoption.
Courtship is a process of selecting and attracting a mate of marriage.
Is a period of love and affection between mates before marriage.
Marriage is a formal and legal bond between a man and a woman as a husband and wife.
Is a state of being married.
IMPORTANCE OF COURTISHIP
(i) Courtship helps unmarried person to get enough time to prepare him/herself for marriage life.
(ii) It enables the mates to evaluate their life together.
(iii) It helps to establish true love, respect and obedience.
(iv) It enables the partners to understand their problems and weaknesses.
(v) It enables the partners to investigate their behaviours.
(vi) It helps to establish stable marriage.
TYPES OF COURTSHIP
(i) Religious courtship.
(ii) Traditional courtship.
Relationship between courtship and marriage
If courtship is not interrupted ends in marriage. Good courtship is a foundation of a stable and long-lasting marriage. There is go marriage without good courtship.
TYPES OF MARRIAGE
In Tanzania, there main forms of marriage are:-
(i) Religious marriage.
(ii) Civil marriage.
(iii) Traditional marriage.
I. RELIGIOUS MARRIAGE
Is a type of marriage which is conducted under religious rules and regulations. E.g. Christian and Islamic marriages. They are either monogamy or polygamy.
II. CIVIL MARRIAGE
Is a type of marriage conducted under civil laws. It is also known as judicial marriage or Marriage in District Commissioner’s Office. It is approved by district commissioner. It is either monogamous or poligamous.
III. TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE
Is a type of marriage conducted under traditions and customs of particular society. It demands payment of bride price before the marriage is held.
Marriage can also be classified according to the age for marriage as;
(i) Early marriage
(ii) Mature marriage
I. Early marriage is a marriage which involves a person or persons below the age of maturity i.e. 18 years old. It is also known as premature marriage.
II. Mature marriage is a marriage that involves people who are or over 18 years.
CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS THAT ENCOURAGE EARLY MARRIAGE
Some of our cultural values and practices may encourage marriage. Some of them include:-
(i) Forced marriage. E.g. among the Maasai the young girls are married off early regardless their age.
(ii) Initiation practices; some of which promote girls to womanhood before the right age.
(iii) Bride price
(iv) Some traditional dances like ‘Chagulaga’ among the Sukuma and ‘Mdundiko’ among the Zaramo.
(v) Poor beliefs; some parents believe that educating girls is wastage of money therefore they marry them off at such a tender age.
Other causes of early include:-
(vi) Age of adolescent; strong sexual desires at this age influence girls and boys to get married early.
(vii) Fear of HIV/AIDS; some girls and boys get married early in order to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS and other Sexual Transmitted Diseases.
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH EARLY MARRIAGE
(i) Complications during delivery – this is due to immaturity of reproductive organs.
(ii) Dropout from schools. It may increase the rate of illiteracy in our society.
(iii) Divorce – adolescent couples are not mature enough to withstand the challenges of marriage life.
(iv) Spread of diseases like HIV/AIDS – due to early involvement in sexual relations.
(v) It increases the rate of poverty – as the adolescent couples are mostly dependant on their parents (family).
(vi) Deaths – due to delivery problems.
Monogamy is a marriage that consists of one man and one woman.
Polygamy is a situation whereby a man has more than one wife.
Bigamy is an illegal act where a person marries another while s/he is lawful marriage.
Polyandry is a situation whereby a woman gets married to more than one husband.
THE CONCEPT OF FAMILY
Family is a social group of people who are closely related to each other by blood, marriage or adoption.
IMPORTANCE OF FAMILY
Family is important social institution as;
(i) Family is a place where children are born and reared.
(ii) It is a source of cooperation and unity in the society.
(iii) It simplifies complex tasks which could not be performed by an individual.
(iv) Through family cultural values are inherited from one generation to another.
(v) Family is nucleus of any nation. Stable families build stable nation.
(vi) It ensures provision of social services to the community since it is a unit of community.
TYPES OF FAMILY
There are several types of family. The main types of family include;
(i) Nuclear family
(ii) Extended family
(iii) Single parent family
I. NUCLEAR FAMILY
Is a type of family which consists of father, mother and children only. It is very common in Europe and America.
ADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR FAMILY
(i) It reduces costs of living.
(ii) It is easy to control due to small number of members.
(iii) It is easy to plan different development programmes- due to the fact that the family resources are likely to meet demands of family members.
(iv) Children enjoy close relationship with parents.
(v) It reduces conflicts in the society.
DISADVANTAGES OF NUCLEUR FAMILY
(i) It may develop a spirit of selfishness to the children due to small number of members.
(ii) It is difficult for children to learn from others.
(iii) Children may fail to have good social interaction with other people.
II. EXTENDED FAMILY
Is a type of family which consists of father, mother, children and other relatives. It is very common in Africa and Asia.
ADVANTAGES OF EXTENDED FAMILY
(i) It promotes unity and solidarity among the people.
(ii) It is easy to perform complex tasks like farming.
(iii) It is a symbol of love among the people.
(iv) It is easy to distribute tasks.
DISADVANTAGES OF EXTENDED FAMILY
(i) It is sometimes difficult to control due to large number of members.
(ii) It increases the rate of poverty – especially when many members depend on few members.
(iii) It may encourage conflicts especially during decision making.
III. SINGLE PARENT FAMILY
Is a type of family which consists of only one parent and child(ren).
This type of family is caused by:-
(i) Death of one parent.
(iii) Bearing children out of wedlock.
ADVANTAGES OF SINGLE PARENT FAMILY
(i) A parent faces a greater financial burden to maintain the family.
(ii) It may lead to the problem of street children if a parent fails to maintain them.
(iii) Children will miss full parental care; this will affect them negatively.
(iv) Children may develop biasness or single parent love.
OTHER TYPES OF FAMILY
(i) COUPLE FAMILY – Is a type of family which consists of husband and wife only. It is common in Europe and Asia only.
(ii) POLYGAMOUS FAMILY – Is a type of family which consists of a man and more than one wife living with their children.
RESPONSBILITIES OF FAMILY MEMBERS
As a member of family father is responsible for;
(i) Making decisions as a head of family.
(ii) Planning short – term and long – term plans of the family.
(iii) Providing family requirements like food and shelter.
(iv) Providing security to the family.
(v) Maintaining family discipline.
As a member of family mother should;
(i) Assist father in controlling the family.
(ii) Give parental care to the children. E.g. child birth and breast feeding.
(iii) Teach the children good values of their communities.
(iv) Act as bridge of love between children and parents.
(i) Assist in domestic tasks like fetching water and cleanliness.
(ii) Respect their parents and other grownups.
(iii) Take care of the younger ones in the family.