FACTORS FOR THE RISE AND DECLINE OF FOREST STATES
A: THE BENIN EMPIRE
Benin Empire was a very small state with the Edo speaking people.
The highest authority at the time where chiefs known as Ogiso which meant the ‘Kings of the Sky’ and the administrative centre was Ubinu.
Between 1388 – 1431, there was a series of civil wars, which badly divided the Edo. After the death of the last Ogiso, his son Prince Ekaladerhan left for exile and established himself in Ile-Ife,
So when the Edo people requested his return, he sent his son instead, Prince Oranmiyan who took up the throne. By 15th C, the empire expanded into a city-state under the leadership of Oba Ewuare the Great
REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE BENIN EMPIRE
1. Some of capable rulers the greatest of those was Aware
2. Good centralized system of government
5. Development of Handicraft Industry
DECLINE OF THE BENIN EMPIRE
Introduction of Slave trade
Trans- Atlantic trade
Firearms that were introduced through the European trade caused tribal wars that led to the final decline of the Benin Empire.
B: OYO EMPIRE
Oyo Empire began in the late 14th C or early 15th C likely 1388 – 1431.
The people of Oyo were Oranmiyan, their capital was Oyo-Ile and the King of Oyo was called Alafin.
The Bashoran was the leader of the army.
REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE OYO EMPIRE
1. It had organized political system headed by a number of great Alafins
2. Strong organized army
3. Agricultural activities
4. Development of local industries
5. Slave trade
6. Dahomey tributary
DECLINE OF THE OYO EMPIRE
1. Conflict between Alafin and Basharon
2. Conquest from the Fulani and Dahomey
3. Civil wars
C: DAHOMEY EMPIRE
Dahomey rose after the decline of Oyo in the 19thC. It was founded by the Fon people.
It had good leaders such as King Agaja and Houegbadja who built the Royal Palaces of Abomey.
THE RISE OF THE DAHOMEY EMPIRE IN THE 18th C
1. Growth of centralized and powerful monarchy
2. Boyul succession system was effective
3. Strong army
4.Good leadership of King Gezo and later Aguja
5. Control of Slave trade
DECLINE OF DAHOMEY
Dahomey declined after the arrival of the French.
D: ASANTE EMPIRE
Asante or Ashanti Empire was founded as a result of the emergence of several cities in the region of Kumasi.
The people of Asante were Akan ruled by the Oyuko clan.
The King was Obiri Yeboa who was Osei Tutu.
The capital city of Asante or Ashanti was Kumasi. The symbol of Asante union was a Golden stool. The ruler of Asante was known as Asantehene.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF ASANTE EMPIRE
1. Agricultural activities
2. Development of local industries
3. Some of its capable rulers e.g. Osei Tutu
4. Well organized political system
The state declined after the arrival of Europeans.