EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION IN TANZANIA
What is globalization?
Globalization: refers to the situation of increasing of world interconnection and interdependence of various aspects of life which include social, political, technological and economical aspects.
However globalization it has made the world be as a single village because of increase in networking system among the global aspects of life. Normally globalization has integrated the different aspects of the world into a global village.
It involves integration of economy, politics, culture, science and technology among nations. The process of globalization is largely facilitate
Impact of globalization in Tanzania can either be political, economy,social or cultural.
Globalization has positive and negative effects which can be analyzed economically, politically and socially as follow:-
A: CULTURAL EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION
I. POSITIVE IMPACTS
1. Integration of all cultural practices in the world
Globalization has managed to integrate all culture practices in the world through the development of information and communication technology like internet, Fax machines, satellites and cable TV E.g. Those culture practices are such as sports and games, music, etc.
2. Decline of bad cultural practices
Globalization has revealed out some bad culture practices which have been performed by some communities. For example, Female Genital mutilation is globally condemned with great emphasis.
3. Expansion of religions in the world
The expansion of the great world religious institutions particularly in Africa and Asia has transformed the social-cultural value of these countries into modern and acceptable ones.
For example, the spread of churches and mosques in Tanzania has increased the work of fighting against bad cultural practices like Female Genital Mutilation, forced marriages, harassment of women.
4. Expansion of cultural practices
Globalization create new and modern way of promoting and protecting national culture for the benefits of the future society, especially through the use of mass media like Television channels.
II. NNEGATIVE IMPACTS
1. Cultural interference
Globalization has swept away cultural boundaries which existed. This is done by the use of advanced information and communication technology such as Televisions, radio, internets and magazines. This has made most Tanzanians to be influenced by western ways of life.
2. Increase in moral decay
Cultural-globalization have been responsible for violence, prostitution and other related behavior which increase as one more integrated into globalization.
3. Devaluation of local languages
Africa native languages including Kiswahili have been undermined by English language. English has become a globalized language such that it is conceived by many Tanzanians that speaking English is a sign of civilization. By so doing, local languages including Kiswahili are being abandoned or left to be used by less educated people.
4. Loss of originality
Some effects of globalization may be experienced in the assessment of pre-existing Africa traditional songs and ceremonies which are being replaced by western styles and contents like kitchen parties (for women) and beauty pageants.
B: ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION
I. POSTIVE EFFECTS
1. It promotes proper uses of natural resources
Through trade liberation and free market economy globalization has stimulated much utilization of natural resources. There are many companies which invest natural resources.
For example, mining companies in Mwadui, Bulyanhulu, Geita, Nzega, etc enable Tanzania to utilize her resources for development of her people.
2. Increase in production in different sectors
Globalization has made production and transportation of goods easier and faster than ever before. It enables Tanzania to get different to get different goods from any corner of the world.
For example, getting goods such as computers, mobile phones, food stuffs, medicines, automobile, chemicals, and so on.
3. It generate employment opportunities
Globalization creates employment opportunities for many people. For example, telecommunication has contributed significantly to the employment creation of both direct and indirect jobs.
The indirect jobs include Tanzanians selling cell-phone, airtime, cell phone battery charging services, providing call services, money transfer, ect while direct jobs include different people employed to provide services in telecommunication companies like Vodacom, TTCL Mobile, Airtel, Zantel Mobile, Sasatel, Tigo.
4. Development of trade
Due to free trade Globalization has made production and transportation of goods easier and faster than ever before. There fore this improves trade sectors.
5. It increased national income
Through privatization of public sectors by government the national income has increased through taxes paid by external investors.
6. Improvement of quality of goods and services
This is possible due to the competition created by the foreign investors who use new technology in production.
7. Improvement of infrastructures
Globalization leads to development of sector of transport and communication. E.g the use of electric train, modern cars, etc.
8. It contribute to urbanization.
II. NEGATIVE EFFECTS
1. Decline of local industries
For developing countries like Tanzania, free trade causes the decline and underdevelopment of industrial sectors and local technology.
Decline of industrial sector and local technology is due to influx of goods from outside whose are low yet with higher quality than local googs.
2. Intensive exploitation of natural resources from the poor countries
Presence of multinational companies in Tanzania if not well controlled may acquire super profit through exploiting citizens thus leaving them poor.
3. It creates unemployment
Globalization sometimes creates unemployment. With growth of technology, machines greatly replace human labour. Therefore, unemployment sometime increases.
For example, the introduction of electronic devices like computer technology and its programmes have led to eviction of many Tanzanians from their jobs.
4. Increase in under development
Though privatization and capital mobility, Northern countries (Europe, North America) undermine Southern Countries (Africa, Asia, South Amerca) through unequal exchange.
Most of the potential natural resources in developing countries are owned by companies from developed countries. Thus undermining local communities.
5. Decline of local technology
Due to importation of many external goods from the outsiders.
6. Importation of fake goods to the developing countries
This is impact of free trade and democratization.
7. Increase in dependent economy
Due to high debts from the developed countries imposed under very high conditions.
8. Decline of local currencies in the less developed countries.
9. Increase of debt crisis in the less developed countries.
C: POLITICAL EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION
I. Positive Effects
1. Changes in the content of domestic law
For example, Tanzania makes laws which comply with international laws and therefore she abides by them in such a way that she can no longer mistreat her citizens the way she wishes.
2. Integration of Tanzania into global politics
Under globalization Tanzania is integrated into world political systems through international agencies and organization.
3. Formation of strong political organization
Globalization has made it necessary for poor countries to form strong political organization as a way of minimizing negative impact of Globalization. Formation of way of minimizing negative impact of Globalization. Formation of Africa Union (AU), EAC, ECT.
4. Increase in democratic practices
Globalization has speeded up the democratization process in Tanzania. Tanzania is adopting global democratic principles such of rule of law, transparency, and accountability and is trying to implement these aspects as a way of promoting democracy.
5. Increase in promotion and protection of human rights.
6. It brought political awareness to people. Due to information flow and increase.
7. Increase in international relations among countries.
II. NEGATIVE IMPACTS
1. Centralization of political power to the developed countries
There has been centralization of political power. This situation reduces political sovereignty of poor countries like Tanzania.
2. Increase of terrorist attacks
Tanzania has been affected by global political disorders and terrorism Bombing of USA embassy in Dar es salaam due to the conflict which involved USA and AL- Qaeda terrorists who are against USA imperialism.
3. Undermining effort of poor countries to form strong political organization
Globalization is pushing down effort by poor countries to form strong political organization such as Africa Union (AU) and East Africa Community. (EAC.
4. It contribute to political instability
In some cases globalization with its related political propandas such as multipartism, transparency, accountability, rule of law and others creat chaos in the country. Some politicians manipulate these agendas and lead to insecurity in the county.
5. Emergence of puppet leaders.
D: SOCIAL EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION
I. POSITIVE IMPACTS
1. Improvement of social services
Through liberalization of social services there is a wide spread of private schools, hospitals and dispensaries which provide servide services to people and hence improving their well-being.
2. It can promote national culture
Through development of information and communication technology like internet, fax machines, satellites to integrates cultural issues in globalize way e.g new advertisements of tourist attraction.
3. Eradication of bad cultural practice
Globalization has removed out some bad cultural practices which practiced by some communities. For instance, the female genital mutilation which is now globally condemned is emphasis bydifferent international agencies.
4. It leads to expansion of the great world religions
many countries particularly in Africa and Asia has transformed their socio-cultural values into modern and acceptable ones. in Tanzania for example, the spread of Christianity and Islam the spread of Christianity and Islam almost in every part of the country, has played a significant role in the people.
5. It improves living standards
Due to the use modern equipment’s like refrigerators, cars, and electronic devices has improved living standard of the people.
7. Improvement of health of the people
Now days there is more innovation of modern medicine that cure various disease like ARVs.
II. NEGATIVE IMPACTS
1. Environmental degradation
Advancement in technology causes environment degradation. Technological advancement in mining sector, agriculture, fishing, transport systems and industrial sectors threatens environmental quality of Tanzania.
2. Cultural interference
Globalization has swept away cultural Boundaries which existed before by the use ofa dvanced information and communication technology such as TVs, radio, internet, newspaper etc.
3. It increase the rate of moral decay
Cultural globalization have been responsible for increase of immoral behaviour such as, prostitution, drug abuse, homo sexuality and other related behaviors.
4. Increase in social evils such Robbery, theft, etc.
5. Source of massive rural to urban rural-migration.
6. Poor student performances. Due to wastage of time to unreasonable issues. E.g playing game, Ps, puutables.
7. Increase in number of beggars.
IMPORTANCE OF GLOBALIZATION IN EDUCATION
1. It helps students on distance learning.
2. It helps students and teachers to share knowledge, skills and materials.
3. It provides wide rage of teaching and learning materials.
4. It helps to simplify the processes of teaching and learning materials. E.g the use of projectors.
5. It helps teachers and student to find different learning material written by different scholars.
6. It helps students to take and complete their assaigments on time.
7. It has increased teaching and learning contents. Example: science and technology.
E: IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT
I. POSITIVE IMPACTS
1. It helps to solve environmental problems such pollution. e.g through recycling.
2. It helps on environmental conservation: through providing modern method of environmental conservation like the use of organic farming.
3. It provides alternative source of energy. E.g the use of biogas.
II. NEGATIVE IMPACTS
1. It leads to environmental pollution
Globalization has increased pollution due to constant emission of toxic gases from heavy industries. For example, there has been air pollution due heavy smoke from industries which has subsequent impact on human life and other living organism.
Globalization may leads to environmental pollution due to the constant emission of toxic gases from heavy industries from the developed countries
2. It leads to increase in greenhouse gases
Greenhouse effect refers to the process of trapping of gases and heat at the atmosphere and in layer around the earth. This problem results from the on-going globalization.
The major source of greenhouse effects is gases like chlorofluorocarbons 9CFCs) produced much by refrigerators, chlorine, nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) through various sources that emitted gases toward the atmosphere like cars, industries has led to the increase of Green house gases in the atmosphere e.g Methane, Carbon dioxide, and so on.
3. It impose over exploitation of natural resources
Due to advancement in science and technology has led to serious exploitation environmental resource such land, water, and forest resources, especially to the third world countries.
4. Increase of deforestation
Globalization has increased deforestation due to permanent clearing of forests for mining activities, construction of road, railway, dams, industries and establishment of settlement areas.
5. Global warming
Globalization has increased global warming due to gradual increase of temperature regime on the earth at a global level caused by emission of gases produced by heavy industries, cars. And moving ships.
These gases prevent the escaping of heat from the earth’s surface to the atmosphere .due to gradual increase on temperature caused by emission of gases from industries and automobiles. These gases prevent the escape of heat from the earth’s surface to the atmosphere.
6. Loss of biodiversity
Globalization resulted in to disappearance of plant and animal species due to over exploitation of environmental resources.