Topic 3: Changes In Political, Social And Economic Policies In Africa After Independence - History Form 4

Topic 3: Changes In Political, Social And Economic Policies In Africa After Independence – History Form 4

History Notes Form Four (4) - All Topics, Topic 4: Africa In International Affairs - History Form 4, Topic 3: Changes In Political, Social And Economic Policies In Africa After Independence - History Form 4, Topic 2: Nationalism And Decolonization Process In Africa - History Form 4, Topic 1: Crises In The Capitalist System - History Form 4

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Reasons for introduction of ideological, political and administrative changes

1. To look for unity among the Africans in order to bring unity. Many African states introduced mono-party system.

2. To eliminate social problems especially poverty which was inherited after independence; when Africans lived in poverty without education, health services, water and electricity. This needed ideological changes, which require government to take responsibility of giving service to its people and reduce poverty.

3. To destroy capitalism. Ideological change insisted the need for people to work together and share the product of their work equally. 4. Administrative changes were effected in order to organize the government pots and civil service so as to provide employment to Africans hence to get money to afford basic needs.

5. Administrative changes brought true independence because it eliminated the white workers who were the product of colonial rule.

6. To address issues such as land alienation, labor, laws, taxation etc.


In 1960 many African states began to achieve their political independence which generally has been referred to as “flag independence” despite the fact that African got their political independence, still African remained under indirect penetration of foreign domination, politically, socially, economically and militarily. The political independence had little impact on the life style of the masses that is why it has been referred to as “ceremonial independence” or “flag independence”.

  • The political independence was largely characterized with political and social economic problems legacy of colonialism, i.e. the problems were inherited from the colonial economy and colonialism, such problems included mass illiteracy of the masses, poverty, tribalism, poor infrastructures etc.
  • The real political legacy of colonial government in Africa was that of an alien dictatorship, benevolent at times, but always prepared to crush outspoken opposition. Many of African leaders had suffered periods of detention without trials for daring to speak out against the unjust and arbitrary nature the government.

What is flag independence?

Flag independence this refers to the type of Independence that the Africa nations attained during their struggles in 1960s 70s and 80s from their colonial masters; it was just ceremonial independence of hoisting the national flags and bringing down the colonial flags. Still African remained victims of foreign domination in all spheres of life, Political economical and socially remained dependant to their former ‘colonial masters, and at times it’s referred to as Neo colonialism.


  1. It leads dependence syndrome whereby the country will depend largely from their former colonial masters for any development programmes.
  2. It leads to the rise of puppet or sycophant leaders in the government who aim at serving and appeasing the colonial masters, but not to serve the interests of their people.
    Absence of national culture and national identity, where by the foreign culture largely Influence the culture of people like education dressing and even table manners.
  3. The constitution was written by the experts in the colonial government and then brought in the metropolitan parliament to approve.
  4. Western model of politics with all ceremony and formality is followed in the territory like mult-party system democracy was to be included in the national constitution.
  5. Absence of real political sovereignty in the sense that most of the political polices are made by the former colonial masters there is always political interference and sabotage from foreign countries.
  6. Weak and small military machinery since most of the military assistance come from former colonial masters.
  7. During the period of self-government, the colonial administrators reserved to themselves control of strategic areas these included the armed forces, finances and international relations.


Most of the African states immediately after independence faced numerous problems. The problems that most African nations faced since independence have, very largely, been the product of their history. The root of many African current problems in final decades of the twenties century are to be found in the period of colonial rule of the pervious eighty years or more. That were generated and inherited from colonial rule. Some of the problems included the following.

A) Political problems
  1. They left a highly centralized administration system whereby the central leader has got a lot of power in the state in most cases this power was vested in the traditional leaders or kings in case of British colonies, Such a system of administration has proved a failure and produced many inefficient leaders, incompetence, unnecessary bureaucracy and misdirection in administration.
  2. They left limited trained African labors to carry out the administration. The majority of Africans were uneducated or totally illiterates barely 10% were educated by the time of independence in sub -Saharan Africa that
  3. The military structure was organized in the way that it was not separated from the political administration that is why most of the independent African states experienced numerous coups de-tat. Where by military juntas took over the political arena
  4. The colonialist planted tribalism among the Africans as to maintain disunity during colonialism, but this was inherited even in the period of post independent African, divide and rule policy was given priority. Most of the Africa nations with multi-party system political parties were based more upon the personal ethnic or regional origin of a particular politician than upon differing economic ideologies to guide the country’ s future development.
  5. The boundaries left by the colonialist were mostly totally artificial. They had been created at the whim of European politicians with little regard for Africa’s multitude of pre-colonial nation state and stateless villages and communities, divided various ethnic groups into boundaries in other words natural African borders were abolished and artificial ones were formed. The artificial boundaries caused a problem of ‘national’ unity after independence.
  6. They introduced foreign administration structure where by foreigners especially the whites ware involved in the running of the colony. In the post independent African state the most important sectors like finance Military and national planning remained in the hands of foreigners.
B) Economical and Social Problems
  1. The colonial government let Africa with the mounting economic crisis that had been the end- product of eighty year of colonial is rule. The African economies had been directed towards exporting cheap agriculture raw materials and unprocessed minerals to Europe and in return importing relatively expensive manufactured goods, thus an economic crisis.
  2. They left inadequate Social infrastructures especially transport net work schools medical centers and imbalanced regional development. The infrastructures that were left were inadequate for the continental internal development, they were virtually no regional roads or rail links between one region from another which would promote internal trade most of the railway had been developed around the turn of the century to ease the export of continent wealthy to Europe. By the time of independence, the few structures that had been built were badly in need of repair.
  3. African government inherited two particularly repressive economic policies from their colonial predecessors; poll tax and agricultural marketing boards. The former was charged on all adults males regardless of their income. The latter paid fixed low prices to farmers, while selling their products for higher prices abroad keeping the difference as government revenues. Both repressive policies were retained by the post independent African nations.
  4. Created of economic stratification in the society i.e. the peasants who lived in rural areas were the majority living in miserable poverty their major economic activity being agriculture which fetched low prices that made their surviving ore difficulty by the time of independence around 95% of the population depended on agriculture for survival and the petty bourgeoisie/working class who lived towns in good standard of living.
  5. They left a highly dependent economy, where by the post independent African states produced raw material for their former colonial master and consumed finished goods from the metro pole. This promoted the unfavorable terms of trade that led to indebt of many post independent African nations.
  6. They left Avery small industrial sector by ensuring that Africa remain de- industrialized and prepare it as potential market for European finished goods.
  7. They introduced traditional cash crops in Africa, which were monoculture to become the source of foreign earner from the metro pole.
  8. Created cultural dependence by distorting of African culture and establishment of foreign culture. Where by African values and culture were destroyed and de-campaigned by the colonialists. Dress language eating manners religion were adopted and inferior complex was instilled to the Africa always to despise their culture and customs This created disunity among the Africans.


After the attainment of independence many African countries faced with many problems, these can be grouped as political, social and economic problems as explained here below;

  1. Mass poverty many Africans are living below the international poverty line surviving on less than one dollar a day this mass poverty was caused by colonialism were by African were denied to participant in meaningful economic activities apart from providing cheap labor. However, the most important is the fall in world commodity prices for Africa principle agriculture export in the mid1960s. Manufactured imports, which Africa had depended on relatively, became more expensive poverty in post independent Africa has been also contributed much by African new political masters to do much beyond enriching themselves, ignoring the majority peasant to live abject poverty.
  2. Mass illiteracy many African are unable to read or to write this was due to inadequate educational centers provided by the colonialists, the colonial education was segregate, and it was only children of the chiefs that were given priority. By the time of independence less than 10 % of Africans were fully educated most were in rural areas where they could not get access to proper education.
  3. Tribalism and nepotism are some o the major problems that are facing the post independent African states these were sown deliberately as a move of the colonialist to favor some tribes and leave others un developed, as to divide and rule. Even some political parties were built on the lines of ethnic groupings. A politician was supported not because he possessed good national policies but because he belonged to a certain ethnic group.
  4. Lack of political administrators that has witnessed corruption misdirection of the state and incompetence of some African leaders very few African were highly educated to provide quality administrative services, most of the Africans lacked skills of administration and political will to help their people. Indeed, it has been argued that within some African countries that the educated elites in the post independent Africa era had in practice done little more than replace white colonial rulers with ‘black colonial rulers!’
  5. Internal disputes that generated due to various political ideologies that made African nations to go to internal wars this was especially socialism vs. capitalism. Most African nations begun to abandon capitalism and multi-partism system of administration they went on one party state as to bring national unity. But this led to the suppression of opposition, detention dictatorship that accelerated civil conflict in the states
  6. The colonialist did not consider boundary disputes, the natural boundaries when partitioning Africa this generated disputes afterwards. The artificial of national boundaries caused serious problems of National unity after independence. Various tribes were divided by colonial bounders e.g. Luo in Kenya and Tanzania the Haya in Uganda and Tanzania.
  7. Lack of enough social infrastructures the colonialists constructed very few social infrastructures to serve colonial production, according to their needs in places where there was no colonial production ware ignored.
  8. Foreign interference in internal affairs, the post independent African nations have not been free or independent as its always portrayed, former colonial masters have always influenced the state especially through Neo colonialism were by the former colonial master always tend to influence the political arena economic and social aspect of African nations.
  9. Foreign debt from outside especially European nations this has been acquired especially from World bank and IMF with high interest rates, that makes it impossible to be paid back and to service it.
  10. Military coup d’ c-tat this was because the military was not separated from the political system many African states experienced military rule. Most of the French speaking countries apart from Senegal Guinea and Cote’ d’ivoire, went over to military rule during the 1 960s. Togo and Dahomey (renamed Benin in 1974) suffered frequent military coups and counter-coups. From November 1965 coup followed coup with frightening regularity taking Nigeria and Ghana in early 1966. By the early I 970s military rule had became a serious Africa political option.
  11. It remained the most frequent means for change of government through the 1970s and 1980s.
  12. Corruption has become very rampant in many post independent African states especially south of the Sahara, the political leaders like, government ministers, some civil servants and other branches of minority-educated elite are becoming increasingly wealthier. Through corruption, like embezzlement of public funds, office abuse, bribes misusing of public funds etc.
  13. The income gap between the rural based poor and the urban civil servants is increasing day by day in the post independent African states.
  14. Lack of political awareness and sensitization due to mass illiteracy among the masses tend not to know their political rights and responsibility. They have been vulnerable to political manipulation and abuse due to their ignorance of political responsibility.
  15. Existence of diseases like Malaria, which kills 2 out of 5 infants and aids, has proved a problem to the post independent African nations. Many post independent African nations have failed to come out with political and social solution to the menace
  16. Lack of strong economic base agriculture has been dominant as the major economic activity, but their yield has been always very low and price fluctuation is too much. Since colonialism, African economies were directed towards exporting primary goods, which fetched low prices and based on imported finished European goods that were costly to purchase.
  17. Natural calamities like floods volcano eruption famine storms epidemics etc. These natural calamities are partly blamed on poor planning and lack of foresighted political leaders accompanied with political will to serve the masses
  18. Religious differences it brought disunity and internal disputes like in Nigeria and Sudan Muslims fight Christians and many are killed in such crushes.


  1. The inherited problems from the colonial past are hindrances to the development of African societies after the independence. (Necta 2015 Qn. 10).
  2. Analyze six problems facing African countries that originated from their colonial heritage. (Necta, 2012, Qno. 8).


  1. To alleviate poverty in Africa can be solved by, increasing income for every family/home. This can be solved by increasing employment opportunities to the masses as to increase their purchasing power, by providing free and subsidized necessities to reduce the expenditure of the masses, which may include medical, school fees, and food.
  2. To create a government of democracy and transparency whereby corruption can be checked and lavish government expenditure should be checked and be stopped.
  3. Equal distribution of national cake by stopping nepotism whereby it’s only few people of one tribe or one region that dominate the government and enjoy sweet jobs, equal representation should be in place to all regions and tribes in the government jobs.
  4. To elect capable leaders who are patriotic and able to care for their people, with good economic plans for development of the people.
  5. To provide basic education and technical education to the masses so as they can solve the problem of unemployment and engage into serious economic ventures/business. This calls for revising national syllabus, which trains job seekers instead of job Creators.
  6. Get rid of neo-colonialism and develop an independent self-sustaining economy, which would help to solve the problem of Africa without foreign intervention.
  7. To diversify our economy from agricultural based to be both industrial and agricultural as to create link between these two major sectors .What we produce can be used as raw materials in industries and industrial product can be purchase/consume by the agricultural sector. This will increase the market base and solve the problem of poverty.
  8. To promote national unity among the masses through one party system so as to avoid many party systems that may bring divisions among the masses, and also national languages should be promoted as to forge unity of the people:
  9. Introduction of national education that is based on the environment of Africa and needs as to avoid the colonial education that produce white collar job seekers instead of job creators, this definitely will solve the problem of mass unemployment.


Since independence nationalistic leaders (heads of states) of post independent African countries such as late JK. Nyerere, Kwame Nkrumah, Nandi Azikiwe, Jomo Kenyatta etc tried their best to bring political unity but there were factors which hindered political unity in Africa to date as follows.
1. The effects of colonial legacy and influence of capitalist. Africa countries failed to build political unity because since before and after independence capitalist countries disunited and divided Africans so as to rule them easily; or capitalist countries divided African countries so as to rule them easily during colonial period and after independence.

2. Different political ideologies. Ideologies of African countries are not the same due to the effect of colonial rule for example some countries in Africa apply capitalist ideology including Kenya while others socialist ideology hence hinder political unity.

3. Different political priorities; African countries after independence to date do not have the same social, political or economic priorities because each country faced different challenges, for example Tanganyika priority were fighting against poverty, ignorance , disease, bring development etc.

4. Timing of attainment of independence. African countries attained their independence differently. Most government achieved their independence in 1960’s, 1980’s, as result fail to share one agenda of building political unity.
5. Poverty; Many African countries still experienced poor economy depended from external donors as result fail to unite.

6. Political instability; politically many Africans countries are not stable due to poor political systems, leaderships etc hence hinder after political unity.

7. Civil wars. There were no peace and harmony to many African countries since government and civilians act one another hence failure of political unity.

8. Tribalism; tribalism in most of Africans countries was still a problem because Africans separated themselves basing on tribal differences.

9. Religious conflict. In some of African countries, there were religious conflicts between Muslims against Christians hence hindered political unity example Nigeria Boko haram, in Somalia sasa weed, Somalia.

10. Dictatorship of leaders in government. Since African leaders and government do not exercise democracy, do corrupt, and do not observe rule of law and good governance hence hinder political unity for e.g. Liberia, Zimbabwe, Sudan, and Somalia etc.

11. Poor communication and infrastructure. Many Africans countries had no good link and interaction of communication due to poor infrastructures such food road, railways, ports harbors etc. hence hinder political unity.

12. Borders conflicts.


This was introduction of new political systems that could govern the newly independent countries.

There were so many political changes but the following were the main ones. These were;

1. Introduction of single party system 2. Military rule/government


During the struggle for independence, many African states had developed multiparty politics as a system to prepare them for independence; it was encouraged by the colonial masters as their pass for independence. E.g. in Tanganyika there was T.A.A and T.A.N.U. in Uganda they were U.P.C, D.P, and K.Y. However, from 1960-1970s many African states begun to reject multi-party parliamentary system as unworkable.

They pleaded the particular circumstances of their country’s crying to unite in order to achieve rapid national development in social and economic. By the late 1 980s only Botswana with its low population of one million people had maintained unbroken record of multi- party democracy since independence. Nevertheless, almost all post independent African states had switched to one part system.


  1. To promote unity and solidarity among the Africans under one party system after having been disunited on political lines by the colonialist, e.g. C.C.M in Tanzania, U.P.C in Uganda K.A.N.U in Kenya emerged as single party. The argument in favor of one party system was that parliamentary opposition based on multi party democracy bases upon ethnic regional interest was destructive rather than constructive opposition.
  2. It was introduced to eliminate political parties that showed interest to protect colonialism during the struggles for independence e.g. U.T.P in Tanganyika allied with British leaders feared that such parties would overthrow the government of newly independent nation.
  3. To avoid civil wars among Africans since they were politically inexperienced immediately after independence and multi-party politics was viewed as a tool to divide the masses basing on their ethnic origin that in the long run may result into civil conflicts, where by every tribe or region struggling to dominant political power. For example in Rwanda and Burundi were the ethnic Tutsi fight ethnic Hutu to control political power.
  4. Greedy for power among few African leaders who wanted to rule for many years without being taken out of the post by political party.
  5. To avoid imperialist influence on local politics, through passing in other political opposition parties. Multi-party politics also was avoided as one of the method for not allowing foreign influence into local politics especially the former colonial power who still wanted to control their former colonies through third party.
  6. To eradicate poverty, ignorance, and diseases this can be well dealt with less than one party system, thus promoting national development by avoiding useless political rivalry of multi-party politics.
  7. To promote good governance by checking on corruption .and misallocation of public funds, in some one-party states such as Tanzania and Zambia, election showed that unpopular government ministers could indeed be voted out of office. However, the awful lot depended upon the political integrity of the party leader and his ability to control the enthusiasm of local party member. However, in some states one party system led to abuse of state power like in Malawi, Uganda.


1. Encouraged authoritarianism due to lack of competition in politics i.e. only few people in the country dominate decision making without allowing any critics.

2. Lack of enough checks and balance on government and so encouraging management and corruption.

3 Led to abuse of power.

4. Suppress diversity of opinion, which endangers development.


QUESTION: By the early 1990’s single party system in Africa was replaced by multiparty system, why?


I. People opposed the system of mono-party, which worked against democracy and human, rights e.g. Right to vote, right of expression and association.

2. The collapse of U.S.S.R (United Soviet Socialist Republic) in 1980’s. The system could not get support from this super power any longer.

3. Donor countries such as USA, British, and Germany did not support the system.

4. Economic decline in most countries with single party system in 1970s and 1980s.

5. The rise of USA as a sole super power.


Coup d’état refers to the sudden military overthrow of civilian government by armed force. The post independent African countries were dominated by military regimes, which were witnessed by military coups, especially in 1960s up to 1970s.

The first military coup was in Egypt in 1952, this marked the beginning of other coups in Sudan 1958, 1969, 1971, and later in 1980, in Zaire 1960 whereby Lumumba was overthrown by Kassa Vumbi, in Togo 1963, in Nigeria, more than five military coups were conducted, in Algeria in 1971, in Uganda 1971, etc.


  1. Failure of the civilian government to bring development after independence, coup d’état was always seen as the .only means of overthrowing an incompetent or unpopular leaders it made the military men to become frustrated and overthrow the government most of the post independent African leaders were puppet leaders that tended to serve the interest of imperialist and themselves, this made the military to over throw the civilian government.
  2. Secondly, the cause of coups in the post independent Africa was that the army inherited at independence had generally and originally been found as part of the process of initial colonial period had generally been held in reserves for internal use against potential rebellious subject rather than for defense of the country against potential hostile neighbors. At independence they had little initial role to play beyond being part of trappings of an independent nation state.
  3. Rigging of election by civilian government also prompted the military intervention to take over the government e.g. in Nigeria the widespread that election of 1964-5 had been rigged finally destroyed the credibility of civilian government that led to the military first coup in Nigeria in January1966
  4. The influence of cold war between capitalism and socialism .Many governments, which advocated one ideology, the opposition, prepared a coup to replace it with either bloc U.S.A capitalism or Communism of Russia.
  5. Corruption and nepotism made the military government to overthrow the civilian government. In 1 960s military coups were reactions against inefficient and corrupt civilian regimes, the military were known for being well disciplined and usually free from corruption, thus won a lot of support from the masses, and e.g. Milton Obote in Uganda who promoted nepotism with corrupt leaders was eventually overthrown by Iddi Amin Dada in 1971.
  6. Colonial policy of divide and rule, which encouraged differences among ethnic groups, the colonial government, left fragmented society, which was very difficult to satisfy, this created political struggle among various ethnic groups.
  7. Involving military in politics, most of post independent African nations failed to separate politics and military as it had been made by the colonialists’ .This involvement of the military men into politics led to the overthrow of the civilian government.
  8. Regional imbalance and tribalism E.g. in Nigeria, Uganda, this was brought by colonialism whereby military men came from labor zones which- were undeveloped, thus the overthrow of the civilian government. In Uganda, the northern part was dominated in the army, in Burundi it is only the Tutsi who dominate the army such situations prepared for a military coup.
  9. Suppression of opposition .Many post independent African states suppressed political parties and begun one party system which many people viewed as a dictatorship, this paved way for military coups e.g. In Nigeria the civilian government of 1979-83 demonstrated freedom of speech freedom of the press but within few years personal greedy suppression of the opposition lavish government spending, were all welcomed by the coup of 1983 as to restore moral authority and discipline in the public.
  10. Mass illiteracy .After independence many African had not attained the basic education thus they were very easy to be manipulated by any political opportunities
  11. The rise of African elite politicians who had studied in Europe with little experience about African situation, thus after assuming power they failed to change the political, economical and social life style of the masses which made many masses to lose confidence in them and supported military regimes e.g. the February coup in Ghana in 1966 which led to the over throw of Nkrumah who was accused of spending most of his energies into being an international statesman while ignoring his own country mounting problems which led to cut off military defense budget and the government intervention of day to day military affairs.
  12. Vicious (brutal) poverty in Africa after independence many African governments failed to meet the standard of living for the army. Many military men were paid less and lived in miserable conditions. Poor living conditions they shared a single room with the family the general welfare was declining every another day. This made them very annoyed and tried to overthrow the government as a solution to solve the problem.
  13. The bag of African problems most of which generated from colonialism, colonialism emphasized separateness, and fragmented. This has retarded the force of solving common problems of African unity, and instead promoted military over throws of civilian government

Topic 3: Changes In Political, Social And Economic Policies In Africa After Independence – History Form 4


It should be remembered that during independence many African states began multiparty system, which did not last for so long after the attainment of independence where by one party system was adopted especially in 1960s andl97Os. However, in 1990s, one party system began to collapse especially after the fall of Soviet Union, which was the socialist bloc, and then many African nations began to adept multiparty system. E.g. in Tanganyika 1995 there was multiparty election, Kenya in 1992

Some of the reasons for multiparty politics was internally motivated while others were externally motivated as we can expand below;

  1. Collapse of U.S.S.R in early 1990s, the leading communist state which used to offer both ideological and material assistance to those countries that followed communist ideology, which called for the formation of one party system known as vanguard party or workers party.
  2. The influence of the leading capitalist nations of Europe and U.S.A, also influenced the African nations to adopt multiparty system if there to be given aid from IMF and World Bank which USA had strong influence.
  3. The influence U.N. under her international organization of I.M.F and World Bank, which persuaded the African Nations to change from mono-party to multi-party system.
  4. The influence of mass media especially the international mass media like B.B.C, C.N.N etc which criticized one party system as a dictatorship of socialism .This made many countries especially in Africa to change their system.
  5. Changes in national ideology. Many African countries adopted multiparty system after crossing from socialism to capitalism, which calls for many party systems, as their national ideology.
  6. Integration of European Union. In 1956 the integration of European Union also had an impact to the African countries to adopt multiparty system as to get assistance from members of European Union.
  7. Failure of one party system to bring development contributed to the rise of many party politics, to check on corruption, nepotism, egoism, and dictatorship.
  8. Increase of elites who had acquired their education in western European nations. During 1990 the elite’ people in Africa increased in number and begun to criticize the one party system, as type of dictatorship of socialism.
  9. More commonly one party politics led to an abuse of state power. In countries such as Nkrumah Ghana Banda’s Malawi and most of the former French colonies, the one party was used to give the ruling party dictatorial powers in suppressing any criticisms of the government thus it became more and more unpopular among the masses especially the educated elite.


Political instability is a situation where by a country is currently going through political turmoil. It may also involve the death of people within that country and in many cases the country detoriates in terms of its economic progress. The post independent African states were dominated with political problems that led upheavals like civil wars. The major causes of these of political instabilities were;

  1. The rise of dictators to power like Iddi Amin Dada in Uganda, Haile Sellasie in Ethiopia Kamuzu Banda in Malawi, forced people to use force as means to overthrow them, thus rise of civil wars.
  2. Tribalism, regionalism, and religious differences, e.g. in Nigeria Muslim v/s Christians, in Uganda the central region v/s the northern part, in Burundi Tutsi v/s Hutu, all these promoted instability and civil wars.
  3. Weak economic base /poverty .This has been the root cause of civil wars and instability in Africa. Many Africans have turned against their government accusing them to segregate them from sharing the national cake.
  4. Existence of military Regimes like in Nigeria under San Abacha, in Uganda under Idd Amin. Such military regimes encouraged terror and violence that lead to political instability as their technique to continue clinging in power.
  5. Colonial boundaries and inter regional conflict e.g. in Kenya and Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Cameroon and Nigeria, Uganda and Tanzania these boundaries were established by the colonialists, But now they have promoted political instability in the regions.
  6. Corruption, Nepotism and lack of transparency in public offices, among the political leaders of Africa after independence, which have led to embezzlement of public funds and uneven distribution of national resources. Some people are segregated from the national cake, this make them to fight against the domination.
  7. Violating human rights, like freedom of speech, freedom of marriage, freedom of movement, freedom of expression heavy punishment, arbitrary arrest, extra judicial killings, etc.
  8. Lack of able political and patriotic administrator, who are forecasted leader who could organize Africans to achieve development. Most of the leaders after independence in Africa were puppets that were planted by colonialist for their own interest.


  1. It promoted national disunity among the masses, basing on tribal lines and regional basis e.g. in Rwanda Burundi the Tutsi and the Hutu are highly divided basing on ethical background.
  2. Civil wars caused misery, death, and destruction of properties e.g. in Angola, Sudan Uganda and Rwanda among others million of civilians have been internally displaced living in refugee camps were their subjected to all sorts of suffering and misery, while others were killed in the course of war.
  3. It discourages economic development whereby governments spend a lot of money and time to suppress the insurgency or rebels this may be done at the expense of other social development, lack of social development like infrastructure and other social overheads may perpetuate the poverty syndrome in many countries of Africa that faced civil wars.
  4. Occurrence of coup d’état as a result of dissatisfaction among the disgruntled people and this may increase more political tension among the masses which may increase the suffering and misery among the people e.g. in Uganda 1971 where Iddi Amin took over the government that made even foreign forces to intervene.
  5. It leads to the outbreak of diseases like small pox, malaria, aids since little tension is given to healthy sector such diseases happen to increase in numbers in Southern Sudan as much as the war claimed many lives of innocent women and children also diseases have claimed a significant number of children and women in the war zone etc.
  6. It leads to internal displacement of people from places of war to safe places this lead to the discouragement, of agriculture and other economic activities, this may bring famine, and malnutrition related diseases.
  7. It brought foreign intervention into national affairs e.g. United nations may intervene European Union or USA, and this is very dangerous at times where by some times such power may not have interest to help or to solve the conflict but rather to increase it for their own national interest e.g. to guarantee market for weapons like in Angola and Southern Sudan were civil wars have taken more than 20 years.


  1. Post independent African states (countries) inherited (forced) different social, political and economic problems/ challenges from colonial government.
  2. Therefore, after independence African countries focused on solving social problems, which African had, due to colonial legacy by setting up new priorities and changes in their social, political and economic systems, which suit Africans. There were the changes;
  3. Changes of political legacy of colonial rule. After independence post independent African states changed brutal military political systems, which adopted by colonialist by emphasized (advocated) on Portia monetary democracy.
  4. Maintaining Sovereignty and security, post-independent African states after independence they created a new system of sovereignty to avoid disintegration of people and maintain peace and security of the state.
  5. Building national unity, post independence African countries priorities was to build national unity among its people who were divided by colonialists based on ethnicity (tribes) language and religion difference.
  6. Fight against Tribalism; post independence African countries put also a pressure of eradicating any forms of tribalism, which was created by colonialist who favored one tribe and made it superior than the other.
  7. Fight against regionalization; Post independent African countries also focused on removing uneven development in the same region in the countries because colonialist left some part of the country more developed and having good social service and infrastructure than the other e.g. in northern was much developed than southern.
  8. Eradication (removal) of poverty; these was most priority of most independent African countries because after independence many African countries were poor as a result all were focused on improving their economies e.g. improving Agriculture, industries etc.
  9. To improve peoples’ and national economy; post independent African countries encouraged their people to involve and improve agriculture production so as to improve their economies and national economies, for e.g. in Tanzania agriculture become a backbone of national economy.


The following were the factors that led to changes in economic development policies and strategies

  1. Economically, Africans were exploited during colonialism and the independent governments wanted to address this situation by giving equal job opportunities to their people.
  2. Some cash crops were prohibited to grow by the Europeans. For example, cash crops like coffee and tobacco. Africans were not allowed to grow some cash crops, which were reserved for Europeans only.
  3. African countries mainly depended on the export of mineral resources and cash crops for their foreign exchange.
  4. Most of African countries were economically dependent on the former colonial masters especially in the area of trade with few exceptions such as Republic of Guinea.
  5. Colonialism contributed to massive regional disparities, with European areas enjoying the best developments, which the African governments also wanted to reduce. Infrastructure was well developed in European areas but not in African regions.

Strengths of the economic policies and strategies adopted since independence

The following are some of the strengths of the economic policies and strategies adopted since independence.

  1. The African public was trained so that they could take part in development. Some Africans public servants in various fields.
  2. The economic strategies and policies led to the expansion of industrialization in the continent, as careful economic planning was done with a view to improving the economies.
  3. There were improved infrastructures such as roads, railways and ports which were established in many African countries
  4. Many socialist countries achieved some measures of economic independence in particular Tanzania under Julius K. Nyerere and Ghana under Nkrumah advocates self-sufficiency in food production v. Many African people were mobilized to participate in development for example The Ujamaa village’s policies were useful in enhancing mobilization.


  1. Africanization of Public positions was accompanied by corruption. This led to in efficiency, as the new public officers were not well acquainted with administrative responsibilities.
  2. The civil servants fought against the interference with their work by politicians. For example, there were many instances where unauthorized use of fund was done for purposes of building political constituencies.
  3. The implementation of agricultural strategies was hampered by the fact that some of the settlement schemes were established in marginal land while other were created away from infrastructure such as roads, railways.
  4. The bureaucratic administrative machinery was mainly modeled on the institutions of the metropolis tan countries, and it was expensive to run and difficult to staff without the assistance of expatriate staff.

The following are some of the contributions of the economic strategies and policies adopted since independence

  1. Development in infrastructure was experienced, for example in Tanzania; a new railway line was established that connected the country to Zambia.
  2. Fast economic growth was realized in some countries. Agricultural production increased due to the need to produce more cash crops for export, industrial raw materials and food self-sufficiency.
  3. New industries were established, the new industries were established and also dams were opened for supplying hydroelectric power.
  4. Employment opportunities the foreign investment created more employment opportunities for the people. Especially in capitalist economies such as Kenya and Ivory coast
  5. It was easy for individuals to work hard and accumulate wealth in African countries.


Education after independence

Objectives of Education in Africa after Independence

  1. To promote self-reliance, social justice, national unity, economic development, equity and scientific literacy.
  2. To promote African cultural values that the colonial education had neglected.
  3. African countries wanted to eradicate racialism in the education sector.
  4. Colonial education was tailored to create a structure that would perpetuate African dependency upon well- trained non- Africans thus the objectives were to eradicate dependency on the colonial masters on the all spheres of life.

Features of Education in Africa after independence

  1. Religious organizations and communities continued to sponsor and run the schools even after independence.
  2. Local staff as most and post- secondary teaching staff were trained. Therefore, much effort was made to infuse the African values and local patterns of life to the education system.
  3. Many Africans emphasize great effort to acquire academic education as during colonialism, Africans were usually provided with vocal training due to the prevailing racial discrimination.
  4. University education was emphasized, given that there were fewer than one hundred Tanzanians with University degrees by 1960. After independence in 1961 University of Dar es salaam was started with a view to achieving self- sufficiency in line with the policy of socialism. In 1963, the University of Dar es salaam, Makerere University College of Nairobi were merged to form university of East Africa.
  5. After independence, African countries had to continue using colonial structure of education since they had to study how to structure their education system due to the shortage of local skilled personnel, Africans government concentrated resources on the expansion of Secondary and higher education. Enrolment in higher education in East Africa increased

Objective of Health services after Independence in Africa

  1. To expand modern health facilities for Africans citizens
  2. To increase living standard of people
  3. To reduce and remove the high infant mortality rate and high material death rate during child labor.
  4. To remove racial discrimination in the provision of health services through promoting health to citizens.

Features of Health Services after independence

  1. Through Ujamaa villages, health services were improved a large group of people were able to receive services from one centre.
  2. The 5- years development plan, ( 1964- 1969) Tanzania’s ambitions to improve health services in rural areas which benefited many people and support for preventive rather than curative aspects of health services.
  3. The government recognized the values of medical auxiliaries after Arusha Declaration. Health services were provided free of charge due to the introduction of socialism until 1980’s other agencies charged a small amount for health services.
  4. During 1970’s and the 1980’s Tanzania received a lot of aid towards promotion of health services. After economic crisis, progress in health care was undermined by lack of enough financial allocation. As the result, user charges were introduced in government hospitals.

Strengths of provision of health services in Africa after independence

  1. Provision of free health services; enable many Africans to get health services they really needed.
  2. None Africans have now been trained to take charge of health sector in their particular countries medical doctors, nurses and other caregivers were trained. These enable individual countries to have their own expert therefore reduced dependency on expatriate personnel.
  3. Provision of vaccines has enabled countries to eradicate many epidemic diseases existed in Africa for a long time such as polio and measles.
  4. Establishment of health practitioners training institutions including medical training centers and universities.
  5. Infant mortality has reduced dramatically in most African count vi. Alternative medicine has now been adopted in a number of African countries to tackle health

Objectives of provision of water services after independence

  1. To improve provision of clean water and reliable to all citizens.
  2. To provide clean and reliable water supplies to the citizens so as to improve the standard of living.
  3. To improve sanitation level in the countries.
  4. To provide more equitable distribution of infrastructures in the countries.
  5. To ensure good health of citizens due to the availability of clean water

Success of provision of water services after independence

Some of the achievements in the provision of water services in Africa after independence are

  1. Establishment of boreholes and dams so as to preserve water.
  2. Private companies has been given licenses to provide clean bottled water so as to avoid it’s citizens to drink unsafe water.
  3. Water treatments plans have been established.
  4. Infrastructures have been established many countries so as to ensure supply of water to citizens this includes provision of piped water

Weakness in the provision of health services in after independence

  1. Enough financial resources to provide health services was a problem to most countries.
  2. Poor planning and lack of resources has affected provision of infrastructure including clean water and transport.
  3. Due to failure to research on local traditional medicines has led African governments to spend many resources in buying medicines from other part of the world.
  4. Number of incurable diseases such as HIV and AID, Diabetes and Cancer also undermines medical services. Heart ailment has increased in Africa and has also contributed to the rising costs of providing health and medical services in the continent.
  5. Lack of enough well-trained personnel as many Africans as man Africans were neglected to be trained during the colonial period. In some African countries, a high level of corruption has led to the sale of government-funded medicines at a throw away to unscrupulosis business people. This caused great suffering among the population.
  6. International drug manufacturers promoted the Western Approach to medicines due to their self- interests. Africans were encouraged to use powdered milk for infants, although they cannot guarantee access to safe water.


Availability of clean water in Africa cannot ignored due to its importance. In order to improve health care in the world clean water is very important. Good sanitation cannot be available in the absence of clean and reliable water supply

The objectives of the provision of housing services after independence

The following are some of the objectives of provision of housing services in Africa after independence.

  1. To establish modern housing for Africans. The establishment of modern housing was due to the promises made by politicians during the struggle for independence thus helped to promote standards of living.
  2. To promote sanitation for the benefit of the citizens. Majority of African citizen were ensured sanitation.
  3. To eradicate racial discrimination, after independence the people of African were supposed to eradicate racial discrimination.
  4. To promote better planning in urban centers in order to enhance development.
  5. To provide enough accommodation spaces for the and do away with slums especially in urban centers.

The pattern of housing distribution after independence

The most of the patterns of housing distribution after independence were;

  1. The best houses have been located in urban centres, urban centers such as Dar es salaam, Harare, Mombasa as well as Nairobi.
  2. European and Asian communities own the best houses. Although we got the political independence in the 1960’s but most of the African communities occupy the poorly constructed houses.
  3. There were increased of population in the urban centers, after independence the population was increased in the cities such as Dar es Salaam, Nairobi.
  4. They used local materials to construct houses in the village (rural areas).
  5. The tall buildings mark the main urban centers such as the cities of sky’s carpers


The following are some of the steps taken to change the colonial pattern of distribution of housing after independence

  1. The government controlled land allocation in the country. All free, hold land reverted to government ownership and previous owner were expected to pay rent to the government.
  2. The government used the control of building and land strategy so as to alleviate pressure on urban housing and community services. The government established the National Housing Corporation (NHC) whose mission was to provide housing needs through financing as well as other associated services in the country.
  3. The government of Tanzania did not have a systematic policy on how to deal with the challenges of urban growth. The African population in the urban centers growing rapidly rather than at the villages.
  4. The government of Tanzania emphasized on the need to make use of low –cost materials for construction purposes so as to provide housing for more people, rather than following international standards blindly

Challenges facing the provision of housing services after independence

There are some challenges facing the provision of housing services after independence such as;

  1. Lack of adequate human resources for instances there were few number of qualified town planners in the country who could help to plan and implement the desired programmes in most countries.
  2. The increase in squatter settlements in most countries like Kenya and Tanzania after independence. This was mainly due to the fast rise in population expansion especially among the youth.
  3. There was corruption and bias in funds allocation consequently, more taxpayer’s money was used to fund establishment of better housing for the middle class in society and less funds were allocated for the housing of the poor.
  4. Most beneficiaries of the new housing schemes were unable to pay their rents to the NHC there by under mining its efficiency in both Tanzania and Kenya.
  5. The bias in the implementation of the projects. This leading to the low income earners getting disadvantages at the project implementation stage by giving priority to the middle-income earners.


 Neo-Colonialism, Refers to the indirect control of the African nation by their former colonial masters socially, politically, and economically. This came about following the attainment of flag independence from the colonial masters. The colonial administrators took steps to ensure that the transfer of power would not jeopardize their economic interest.

One of the methods was to prepare ground for the creation of puppet leaders by involving leaders of national movement into colonial government. This ensured that emerging leaders were groomed to up hold the existing exploitative relations.

Secondly the process of handing over power ensured that neo colonial relation would follow independence as to grantee the economic interest of the former colonial master, the constitution was made and approved by the colonialists, they made sure that the western model of political authority was followed in the independent country, The strategic sectors were preserved to the colonial masters like Finance, and International relation. In fact, even in those fields that African was given responsibility the colonial did not vacant.


Neo-colonialism has got four forms and it’s through these forms African countries are controlled and exploited by their former colonial masters and other capitalist countries, like USA. In other words how neo colonialism operates, as to meet the interest of the imperialists.


  1. Through massive investment by imperialist multi-corporations companies, as a way to exploit market area for investment and cheap labor of Africa e.g. such corporations include. Coca-Cola, Barclays Banks, Shell mining companies etc.
  2. Through controlling the World market by fixing price of African cash crops by keeping the prices low so that African remain dependant to their aid.
  3. To make Africa a damping place for cheap European manufactured goods, so that Africa remain dc-industrialize, and depend on them for consumer goods.
  4. Monopolizing technology by preventing Africans to engage into new technologies,
    e.g. EEC – ACP relation signed in 1976 between European Economic Community and African Caribbean and Pacific, prohibiting African nation to produce sensitive commodities that are produced by European nations.
  5. Through giving loans and grants under World Bank and IMF to Africans with very high interest rate and unrealistic conditions, this proves hard for African nations to pay back, that result into debt burden.
  6. Sending of European ‘expatriates’ to work in African countries for interests of their countries and then are given higher standard of living than the local people like high wages expensive accommodation, luxurious cars, which makes all the funds given as aid to be spent to the foreigner expatriates.
  7. Through international financial organs like IMF, W.B, IBRD, EU, GATT etc to make policies that enable them to continue exploiting the third World countries e.g. S.A.P.


  1. Through establishing relation with a ruling class and create a puppet leader, so that can be influenced according to their interest (the imperialist).
  2. Through political influence and ideology following the imperialist democracies like parliamentary system election and multi party system, under the influence of UN.
  3. Through propaganda of mass media making Africans to listen their radios like BBC, CNN, VOA, and D.W.
  4. Through planting and supporting puppet leaders who serve their interests e.g. Yoweri Museveni in Uganda J. Rawlings in Ghana.
  5. Over throwing communist oriented government and putting capitalist based government e.g. Zaire in case of Lumumba in l96O and Ghana in case of Nkrumah


  1. Through influence of films, books, and education syllabus where by the curriculum is developed by the agents of colonialist that it is European based to a big extent.
  2. Provision of scholarships to Africans to study abroad, in their countries.
  3. Brainwashing Africans’ mind through ideological indoctrination.


  1. Establishment of military bases e.g. USA has got 234 military base in 44 countries of Africa.
  2. To provide military assistance like weapons and instructors to train African military men.
  3. By conducting coup d’état in the case of stubborn leaders who are against their economic interests.


African countries can disengage from Ne-colonialism by doing the following;

  1. By developing self-sustainable and self-reliance economies which may reduce the problem of dependence to the metro pole.
  2. African should develop science and technology of their own, by encouraging science subjects in school and higher institutions, research must be conducted often to come out with new ideas, instead of depending foreign on technology.
  3. African should encourage and strengthen the regional integration, which may increase their economic power and political dominance. E.g. EAC, SADC, ECO WAS, etc.
  4. African countries should diversify their economies from monoculture to both industrial and agricultural sector, this will reduce over dependence of one sector, so that incase of the collapse of prices of one sector should not heavily affect the national economy
  5. African should socialize and nationalize productive forces to reduce individual monopolies in economic and political power.
  6. African should form democracy, transparence accountability in public offices to reduce the danger of corruption nepotism and embezzlement
  7. To reject western interference in the political, economic and social affairs of African issues so as we develop an independent decisions and independent mind.
  8. African should reject western standards like culture dressing foods etc because they only create market for European goods and make African damping place. This discourages the development of infant industries in the continent.
  9. Avoid civil war and conflicts that bring about economic backwardness and concentrate on political solution to iron out internal dispute instead of applying