CENTRALIZED STATES IN CENTRAL AFRICA
A: KONGO EMPIRE
It was founded in the 14th C. The head of the kingdom took the title of Manikongo or Mwekongo means lord of Kongo.
The capital was Mbaza, which the Portuguese later baptized Sutrador.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF KONGO EMPIRE
1. Technological development e.g. Iron technology
4. Development of local industries
5. Emergence of traditional leaders with a strong belief in spiritual and magic power
DECLINE OF THE CONGO EMPIRE
1. The arrival of the Portuguese
2. Slave trade
3. Weak leadership after Manikongo Mingo Mkuwa who acquired up an Embassy in Portugal.
His son Mzingo Mbemba was baptized as Dan Alfonce.
He was a puppet of the Portuguese and caused civil war in Kongo.
B: MWENEMUTAPA KINGDOM
This Kingdom was created under the leadership of Mutola. Mutola conquered Tongu and Torura of the Zambezi valley.
He acquired the title of Mwenemutapa, which means ‘Master of the conquered lands’.
He was a political, military and religious leader. Mutola died in 1450 and his son Matope inherited, after Matope’s death in 1480 Changamire took over in 1490.
REASONS FOR THE RISE OF MWENEMUTAPA KINGDOM
1. Agricultural activities
2. Good leadership of Mutola
3. Availability of valuable goods e.g. copper, iron and gold
4. They controlled trade routes
5. Trading centers
REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF MWENEMUTAPA KINGDOM
1. The arrival of Portuguese who monopolized the gold trade
2. The kingdom became divided into two parts Mutapa and Ruzwi
3. Rebellion from local people
4. After the death of Matope, his son Nyahuma took over. He was younger than the other Chief so that Chief rebelled and caused civil war.
C: THE LUBA STATE
This state is found between the tributaries of river Kongo. The Songiye people migrated from Katanga led by a leader from the Kangolo clan.
The united Kaniok and from Luba kingdom, Ilungambila married into the Kangolo clan.
This intermarriage gave the rise of Luba lineage of Kalala Ilunga, the founder of Munza as capital of Luba.
REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE LUBA STATE
1. Centralized system of Administration where the kingdom had final say in wars and external trade
2. The development of trade
3. Agricultural Activities
4. The presence of iron technology
D: THE LUNDA STATE
The centre of the empire lay in the Valley of Nkala River. The Luba kings took the title of Mwanta.
It began as a simple village and their first ruler was called Mwantagaand.
Ilunga Tshibinda who came from Luba married a princess from the area and their son became the first paramount ruler of the Lunda State.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF LUNDA STATE
1. Iron technology
2. Development of local industries
3. Agriculture activities
4. Good leadership
Takipteyim kaliteli ve güzel bir içerik olmuş dostum.
Ne zamandır web sitelerim için aradığım içeriği sonunda buldum. Bu kadar detaylı ve net açıklama için teşekkürler.